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Commentary - Radio signal
    [p.1215] Annex I, Article 7 -- Radio signal


    [p.1216] General remarks

    4178 The radio signal provided for in this article is a distinctive signal within the meaning of paragraph (m) of Article 8 ' (Terminology) ' of the Protocol, and its use is governed by Article 18 ' (Identification) ' of the Protocol. Furthermore, since the use of radiocommunications is governed by the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the Diplomatic Conference addressed to the latter organization Resolution 19 requesting that the World Administrative Radio Conference, to be held in Geneva in 1979 (WARC-79), adopt provisions designed to ensure that the vital requirements of communications for protected medical units and transports were adequately provided for in the Radio Regulations.

    4179 In that connection, it was observed at the third session of the Diplomatic Conference that the text of Chapters III and IV of Annex I were purely tentative and that the ITU, ICAO and IMO had been asked to provide some new practices and procedures for signalling and communications. (1)

    [p.1217] 4180 The issue brought to the attention of WARC-79 in Resolution 19 appeared on the agenda of the Conference as item 2.6:

    "2.6. to study the technical aspects of the use of radiocommunications for marking, identifying, locating and communicating with the means of medical transport protected under the 1949 Geneva Conventions and any additional instruments of these Conventions." (2)

    4181 WARC-79 accorded the radiocommunications of medical units and transports the same degree of priority as the urgency and safety transmissions governed by Article 40 of the Radio Regulations. Consideration of item 2.6 of the agenda resulted in the adoption of a new Section II for Article 40, entitled "Medical Transports", and these transports were also mentioned specifically in the title of the article.

    4182 Article 40 as amended was submitted to the World Administrative Radio Conference for the Mobile Services (maritime and aeronautical) convened by the ITU in Geneva in 1983 (WARC Mob-83), which decided to supplement some of the provisions adopted in 1979 in order to facilitate the identification of all the medical transports defined in Section II. The following additions were made:

    -- ' No. 3209, paragraph 7 (Mob-83). ' At the end of the sentence, after "an armed conflict": "[...] when these ships, craft and aircraft assist the wounded, the sick and the shipwrecked".
    -- ' No. 3219A, paragraph 11A (Mob-83). ' The identification and location of medical transports at sea may be effected by means of appropriate standard maritime radar transponders.
    -- ' No. 3219B, paragraph 11B (Mob-83). ' The identification and location of aircraft medical transports may be effected by the use of the secondary surveillance radar (SSR) system specified in Annex 10 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation.

    4183 Article 40 of the Radio Regulations now comprises three sections, the first two of which meet the essential requirements of the distinctive radio signal set out in this article. It is reproduced in full infra, p. 1237.

    4184 The optional use of radiocommunications for announcing and identifying medical transports is referred to in No. 3220 of Article 40, which states that, if such radiocommunications are used, the provisions of the Radio Regulations and particularly of Article 40, Section II, and Articles 37 and 38 shall apply. Article 37 contains general provisions relating to distress, safety and urgency communications for stations on board ships or aircraft and for the satellite service. Article 38 contains the rules for using the frequencies available for distress and safety purposes. Both articles are reproduced infra, p. 1220 and p. 1223.

    4185 In respect of medical aircraft, provisions similar to those of Article 40, Section II, of the Radio Regulations were incorporated by ICAO in Chapter 5, [p.1218] "Aeronautical Mobile Service", of Annex 10, Volume II, "Aeronautical Telecommunications". (3) These provisions relating to aeronautical telecommunications are reproduced infra, p. 1241.

    4186 The need to use radiocommunications for announcing and identifying medical transports became apparent during the Second World War. At sea, more than 45 hospital ships and 4 ships chartered by the ICRC were sunk or damaged by acts of war; the absence of effective means of identification was responsible for most of the attacks, both above and under the water. In 1943 a hospital ship attacked by aircraft endeavoured to identify itself by radio. The Malta coast station retransmitted the ship's message as a general call to all stations (CQ), but the attacking aircraft were unable to receive it. From 1944 onwards, neutral vessels in the Mediterranean signalled their position by transmitting a message every four hours on the distress frequency 500 kHz. In the Atlantic, this message was transmitted once a day. These messages announcing the ship's position and transmitted on the frequency 500 kHz were prescribed by the belligerents. (4)

    4187 Section II of Article 40 gives effect to Resolution 19 of the Diplomatic Conference as well as to ITU Recommendations Nos. 2 and Mar2-17. (5)

    4188 There are other ITU recommendations or resolutions which relate to situations of armed conflict or have a bearing on the work of the International Red Cross, such as:

    -- ' Resolution No. 11, ' relating to the use of radiocommunications for ensuring the safety of ships and aircraft of States not parties to an armed conflict -- WARC1979 (this resolution replaces Recommendation No. Mar2-17 of 1974).
    -- ' Resolution No. 18, ' relating to the procedure for identifying and announcing the position of ships and aircraft of States not parties to an armed conflict -- WARC Mob-83 (this resolution replaces Resolution No. 11 of 1979).
    -- ' Resolution No. 10, ' relating to the use of radiotelegraph and radiotelephone links by the Red Cross, Red Crescent and Red Lion and Sun Organizations (6) -- WARC 1979 (this resolution replaces Recommendation No. 34 of 1959).

    Resolutions Nos. 10 and 18 are found in Volume 2 of the Radio Regulations; they are annexed to this commentary, infra, p. 1243 and p. 1244.

    Paragraph 1

    4189 When the Regulations are brought up to date, all the provisions of this paragraph should be brought into line with Article 40 of the Radio Regulations.

    [p.1219] 4190 The radiotelephone or radiotelegraph message is described in Nos. 3212 to 3218 of Section II of Article 40; the priority signal is defined in Nos. 3196 and 3197 of Section I and No. 3210 of Section II. Thus, in radiotelephony, the radio signal transmitted by a medical unit or transport starts with:

    PAN PAN PAN PAN PAN PAN MEDICAL

    This distinctive priority signal is followed by the message defined in Nos. 3212 to 3218 referred to above.

    Paragraph 2

    4191 Sub-paragraph (a), which here refers only to the call sign, was supplemented by WARC-79 as follows: "[...] or other recognized means of identification of the medical transport".

    4192 Technological progress in the field of radiocommunications makes it possible to allocate selective call numbers to radio stations on board ships and aircraft. The allocation of individual call numbers is being contemplated, and the radiotelex equipment at some stations already has its own number. Accordingly, the call sign may not be the only internationally recognized distinctive sign of a medical transport.

    4193 The text of this paragraph will also have to be brought into line with Article 40 of the Radio Regulations.

    Paragraph 3

    4194 The frequencies referred to in Section I of this Article 40 are to be used exclusively for urgency and safety transmissions and medical transports. The procedure laid down in Article 40 must be followed for transmission of the radio signal set aside for medical units and transports. Consequently, the entire operative part of this paragraph should be replaced by the procedure set out in Sections I and II of Article 40.

    ' Ph. E. '


    [p.1220] Documents annexed Document No. 1 (cf. supra, p. 1217)

    INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION

    RADIO REGULATIONS Edition of 1982 Revised in 1985 (Extract)

    CHAPTER IX

    Mob-83 Distress and safety Communications (7)

    ARTICLE 37

    General Provisions

    2930   1.The procedure specified in this Chapter is obligatory in the maritime mobile service and for communications between aircraft stations and stations of the maritime mobile service. The provisions of this Chapter are also applicable to the aeronautical mobile service except in the case of special arrangements between the governments concerned.

    2931   2.The procedure specified in this Chapter is obligatory in the maritime mobile-satellite service and for communications between stations on board aircraft and stations of the maritime mobile-satellite service, where this service or stations of this service are specifically mentioned. Nos. 3086, 3090, 3095, 3096, 3097, 3098, 3200, 3203 and 3223 are also applicable.

    [p.1221] 2932   3.(1) No provision of these Regulations prevents Mob-83 the use by a mobile station or mobile earth station in distress of any means at its disposal to attract attention, make known its position, and obtain help.

    2933 (2) No provision of these Regulations prevents Mob-83 the use by stations on board aircraft or ships engaged in search and rescue operations, in exceptional circumstances, of any means at their disposal to assist a mobile station or mobile earth station in distress.

    2934 (3) No provision of these Regulations prevents Mob-83 the use by a land station or coast earth station, in exceptional circumstances, of any means at its disposal to assist a mobile station or mobile earth station in distress (see also No. 959).

    2934A   3A. When special circumstances make it indispensable Mob-83 to do so, an administration may, as an exception to the methods of working provided for by these Regulations, authorize ship earth stations located at Rescue Coordination Centres (8) to communicate with other stations of the same category using bands allocated to the maritime mobile-satellite service, for distress and safety purposes only.

    2935   4.In cases of distress, urgency or safety, transmissions;

    2936 a) by telegraphy, when using Morse, shall not Mob-83 in general exceed a speed of sixteen words a minute;

    2937 b) by radiotelephony, shall be made slowly and distinctly, each word being clearly pronounced to facilitate transcription.

    2937A   4A. Distress, urgency and safety transmissions may Mob-83 also be made, taking into account Nos. 2944 to 2949, using digital selective calling and satellite techniques in accordance with relevant CCIR Recommendations, and/or direct-printing telegraphy.

    2938   5.The abbreviations and signals of Appendix 14 and the Phonetic Alphabet and figure Code in Appendix 24 should be used where applicable and, where language difficulties exist, the use of the International Code of Signals also is recommended.

    2939   6.(1) The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea prescribes which ships and which of their survival craft shall be fitted with radio equipment and which ships shall carry portable radio equipment for use in survival craft. It also prescribes the requirements which shall be complied with by such installations.

    [p.1222]

    2940 (2) The Annexes to the Convention on International Mob-83 Civil Aviation state which aircraft should be fitted with radio equipment and which aircraft should carry portable survival radio equipment. They state also the requirements which should be complied with by such installations.

    2941   7.The applicable provisions of the present Regulations shall, however, be observed in the use of all such installations.

    2942   8.Mobile stations (9) of the maritime mobile service Mob-83 may communicate, for safety purposes, with stations of the aeronautical mobile service. Such communications shall be made on the frequencies authorized, and under the conditions specified, in Section I of Article 38 (see also No. 2932).

    2942A   8A. Mobile stations of the aeronautical mobile service Mob-83 may communicate, for safety purposes, with stations of the maritime mobile service.

    2943   9.Any aircraft required by national or international Mob-83 regulations to communicate for distress, urgency or safety purposes with stations of the maritime mobile service shall be capable of transmitting preferably class A2A or H2A and receiving preferably class A2A and H2A emissions on the carrier frequency 500 kHz or, on the carrier frequency 2 182 kHz, transmitting class J3E or H3E and receiving class A3E, J3E and H3E emissions (10), or on the carrier frequency 4 125 kHz, transmitting class J3E and receiving class J3E emissions, or on the frequency 156.8 MHz transmitting and receiving class G3E emissions.

    2944   10. The frequency provisions made in Section I of Mob-83 Article 38 for the future global maritime distress and safety system (FGMDSS) shall be used in connection with the testing and introduction of this system (see Resolution 321 (Mob-83) and Recommandation 201 (Rep.Mob-83)), and be subject to the provisions of Nos. 2945 to 2949.

    2945   11. Until a future world administrative radio Mob-83 conference has made full provision for the normal operational use of the future global maritime distress and safety system FGMDSS):

    2946 a) all provisions of the Radio Regulations Mob-83 pertaining to the present distress, urgency andsafety communications shall be maintained in force;

    [p.1223]

    2947 b) particular care shall be taken to ensure Mob-83 that harmful interference is not caused to distress, urgency and safety communications on the established international distress frequencies 500 kHz, 2 182 kHz and 156,8 MHz and on the supplementary distress frequencies 4 125 kHz and 6 215,5 kHz;

    2948 c) operators of stations participating in the Mob-83 future global maritime distress and safety system (FGMDSS) for distress, urgency or safety purposes, should recognize that it may be necessary to revert to the other distress, urgency and safety arrangements provided for in these Regulations (see Recommandation 201 (Rev.Mob-83));

    2949 d) the frequencies identified in Section I of Mob-83 Article 38 for exclusive use for distress and safety calls by digital selective calling may additionally be used for test transmissions only to the extent necessary to facilitate the testing and progressive introduction of that system.

    2950 NOT allocated. to 2966


    Document No. 2 (cf. supra, p. 1217)

    ARTICLE 38

    Frequencies for Distress and safety

    Section I. Availability of Frequencies

    2967 ' A. 490 kHz ' Mob-83

    2968   0.The frequency 490 kHz is used exclusively for Mob-83 distress and safety calls in the shore-to-ship direction by digital selective calling techniques (see No. 2944). Additional conditions concerning the use of this frequency are given in Resolution 206 (Mob-83).

    2969 ' B. 500 kHz ' Mob-83

    2970   1.(1) The frequency 500 kHz is the international Mob-83 distress frequency for Morse telegraphy (see also No. 472); it shall be used for this purpose by ship, aircraft and survival craft stations employing frequencies in the bands between 415 kHz and 535 kHz when requesting assistance from the maritime [p.1224] services. It shall be used for the distress call and distress traffic, for the urgency signal and urgency messages, for the safety signal and, outside regions of heavy traffic, for short safety messages. When practicable, safety messages shall be transmitted on the working frequency after a preliminary announcement on 500 kHz (see also No. 4236). For distress and safety purposes, the classes of emission to be used on 500 kHz shall be A2A, A2B, H2A or H2B (see also No. 3042).

    2971 (2) However, ship and aircraft stations which cannot transmit on 500 kHz should use any other available frequency on which attention might be attracted.

    2971A ' C. 518 kHz ' Mob-83

    2971B   1A. In the maritime mobile service, the frequency 518 Mob-83 kHz is used exclusively for the transmission by coast stations of meteorological and navigational warnings and urgent information to ships, by means of narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy (see No. 2944 and Resolution 318 (Mob-83)).

    2971C ' D. 2 174.5 kHz ' Mob-83

    2971D   1B. The frequency 2 174,5 kHz is used exclusively for Mob-83 distress and safety traffic by narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy (see No. 2944).

    2972 ' E. 2182 kHz ' Mob-83

    2973   2.(1) The carrier frequency 2 182 kHz (11) is an Mob-83 international distress frequency for radiotelephony (see also Nos. 500 and 501); it shall be used for this purpose by ship, aircraft and survival craft stations and by emergency position-indicating radiobeacons using frequencies in the authorized bands between 1 605 kHz and 4 000 kHz when requesting assistance from the maritime services. It is used for the distress call and distress traffic, for signals of emergency position-indicating radiobeacons, for the urgency signal and urgency messages and for the safety signal. Safety messages shall be transmitted, where practicable, on a working frequency after a preliminary announcement on 2 182 kHz (see No. 2944). The class of emission to be used for radiotelephony on the frequency 2 182 kHz shall be H3E. Class A3E emission may continue to be used by apparatus provided solely for distress, urgency and safety purposes (see No. 4127). The class of emission to be used by emergency position-indicating radiobeacons shall be as specified in Appendix 37 (see also No. 3265). The class of emission J3E may be used for the exchange of distress call using digital selective calling techniques on 2 187.5 kHz taking into account that other shipping in the vicinity may not be able to receive this traffic.

    [p.1225] 2974

    (2) If a distress message on the carrier frequency Mob-83 2182 kHz has not been acknowledged, the radiotelephone alarm signal, whenever possible followed by the distress call and message, may be transmitted again on a carrier frequency of 4 125 kHz or 6 215.5 kHz, as appropriate (see Nos. 2982, 2986 and 3054).

    2975 (3) However, ship and aircraft stations which cannot transmit on the carrier frequency 2182 kHz or, in accordance with No. 2974, on the carrier frequencies 4125 kHz or 6215.5 kHz, should use any other available frequency on which attention might be attracted.

    2976 SUP Mob-83

    2977 (5) Any coast station using the carrier frequency 2 182 kHz for distress purposes shall be able to transmit the radiotelephone alarm signal described in No. 3270 (see also Nos. 3277, 3278 and 3279).

    2978 (6) Any coast station authorized to send navigational warnings should be able to transmit the navigational warning signal described in Nos. 3284, 3285 and 3286.

    2978A ' F. 2187.5 kHz ' Mob-83

    2978B   2A. The frequency 2187.5 kHz is used exclusively for Mob-83 distress and safety calls by digital selective calling techniques (see No. 2944). It may also be used for emergency position-indicating radiobeacons using digital selective calling.

    2979 ' G. 3023 kHz ' Mob-83

    2980   3.The aeronautical carrier (reference) frequency Mob-83 3023 kHz may be used for intercommunication between mobile stations when they are engaged in coordinated search and rescue operations, and for communication between these stations and participating land stations, in accordance with the provisions of Appendix 27 Aer2 (see Nos. 501 and 505).

    2981 ' H. 4125 kHz ' Mob-83

    2982   4.(1) The carrier frequency 4125 kHz is used to Mob-83 supplement the carrier frequency 2182 kHz for distress and safety purposes and for call and reply (see also No. 520). This frequency is also used for distress and safety traffic by radiotelephony (see No. 2944).

    2982A (2) The carrier frequency 4125 kHz may be used by Mob-83 aircraft stations to communicate with stations of the maritime mobile service for distress and safety purposes (see No. 2943).

    [p.1226] 2982B ' I. 4177.5 kHz ' Mob-83

    2982C 4A. The frequency 4177.5 kHz is used exclusively for Mob-83 distress and safety traffic using narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy (see No. 2944).

    2982D ' J. 4188 kHz ' Mob-83

    2982E   4B. The frequency 4188 kHz is used exclusively for Mob-83 distress and safety calls using digital selective calling techniques (see No. 2944).

    2983 ' K. 5680 kHz ' Mob-83

    2984   5.The aeronautical carrier (reference) frequency Mob-83 5680 kHz may be used for intercommunication between mobile stations when they are engaged in coordinated search and rescue operations, and for communication between these stations and participating land stations, in accordance with the provisions of Appendix 27 Aer2 (see also Nos. 501 and 505).

    2985 ' L. 6215.5 kHz ' Mob-83

    2986 6.The carrier frequency 6215.5 kHz is used to Mob-83 supplement the carrier frequency 2182 kHz for distress and safety purposes and for call and reply (see also No. 520). This frequency is also used for distress and safety traffic by radiotelephony (see No. 2944).

    2986A ' M. 6268 kHz ' Mob-83

    2986B   6A. The frequency 6268 kHz is used exclusively for Mob-83 distress and safety traffic using narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy (see No. 2944).

    2986C ' N. 6282 kHz ' Mob-83

    2986D   6B. The frequency 6282 kHz is used exclusively for Mob-83 distress and safety calls by digital selective calling techniques (see No. 2944).

    2986E ' O. 8257 kHz ' Mob-83

    2986F   6C. The carrier frequency 8 257 kHz is used for Mob-83 distress and safety traffic by radiotelephony (see No. 2944).

    [p.1227] 2986G ' P. 8357.5 kHz ' Mob-83

    2986H   6D. The frequency 8357.5 kHz is used exclusively for Mob-83 distress and safety traffic using narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy (see No. 2944).

    2987 ' Q. 8364 kHz ' Mob-83

    2988   7.The frequency 8364 kHz is designated for use by survival craft stations if they are equipped to transmit on frequencies in the bands between 4 000 khz and 27 500 kHz and if they desire to establish communications relating to search and rescue operations with stations of the maritime and aeronautical mobile services (see also No. 501).

    2988A ' R. 8375 kHz ' Mob-83

    2988B 7A. The frequency 8375 kHz is used exclusively for Mob-83 distress and safety calls using digital selective calling techniques (see No. 2944).

    2988C ' S. 12392 kHz ' Mob-83

    2988D   7B. The carrier frequency 12392 kHz is used for Mob-83 distress and safety traffic by radiotelephony (see No. 2944).

    2988E ' T. 12520 kHz ' Mob-83

    2988F   7C. The frequency 12520 kHz is used exclusively for Mob-83 distress and safety traffic using narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy (see No. 2944).

    2988G ' U. 12563 kHz ' Mob-83

    2988H   7D. The frequency 12563 kHz is used exclusively for Mob-83 distress and safety calls using digital selective calling techniques (see No. 2944).

    29881 ' V. 16522 kHz ' Mob-83

    2988J   7E. The carrier frequency 16522 kHz is used for Mob-83 distress and safety traffic by radiotelephony (see No. 2944).

    [p.1228] 2988K ' W. 16695 kHz ' Mob-83

    2988L   7F. The frequency 16695 kHz is used exclusively for Mob-83 distress and safety traffic using narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy (see No. 2944).

    2988M ' X. 16750 kHz ' Mob-83

    2988N   7G. The frequency 16750 kHz is used exclusively for Mob-83 distress and safety calls using digital selective calling techniques (see No. 2944).

    2989 ' Y. 121.5 MHz and 123.1 MHz ' Mob-83

    2990 SUP Mob-83

    2990A   8.(1A)The aeronautical emergency frequency 121.5 MHz (12) Mob-83 is used for the purposes of distress and urgency for radiotelephony by stations of the aeronautical mobile service using frequencies in the band between 117.975 MHz and 136 MHz (137 MHz after 1 January 1990). This frequency may also be used for these purposes in survival craft stations and emergency position-indicating radiobeacons.

    2990B (1B)The aeronautical auxiliary frequency 123.1 MHz, Mob-83 which is auxiliary to the aeronautical emergency 121.5 MHz, is for use by stations of the aeronautical mobile service and by other mobile and land stations engaged in c mobile service on the aeronautical emergency frequency 121.5 MHz for the purposes of distress and urgency only, and on the aeronautical auxiliary frequency 123. 1 MHz for coordinated search and rescue operations, using class A3E emissions for both frequencies (see also Nos. 501 and 593). They shall then comply with any special arrangements between the governments concerned by which the aeronautical mobile service is regulated.

    2992 ' Z. 156.3 MHz ' Mob-83

    2993   9.The frequency 156.3 MHz may be used for communication between ship stations and aircraft stations, using G3E emission, engaged in coordinated search and rescue operations. It may also be used by aircraft stations to communicate with ship stations for other safety purposes (see also note g) of Appendix 18).

    [p.1229] 2993A ' AA. 156.525 MHz ' Mob-83

    2993B   9A. The frequency 156.525 MHz is used exclusively in Mob-83 the maritime mobile service for distress and safety calls by digital selective calling techniques (see Nos. 613A and 2944 and Resolution 317 (Mob-83)).

    2993C ' AB. 156.650 MHz ' Mob-83

    2993D   9B. The frequency 156.650 MHz is used for ship-to-ship Mob-83 communications related to the safety of navigation in accordance with note n) of Appendix 18 (see No. 2944).

    2993E ' AC. 156.8 MHz ' Mob-83

    2994 10. (1) The frequency 156.8 MHz is the international Mob-83 distress, safety and calling frequency for radiotelephony for stations of the maritime mobile service when they use frequencies in the authorized bands between 156 MHz and 174 MHz (see also Nos. 501 and 613). It is used for the distress signal, the distress call and distress traffic, as well as for the urgency signal, urgency traffic and the safety signal (see also No. 2995A). Safety messages shall be transmitted where practicable on a working frequency after a preliminary announcement on 156.8 MHz. The class of emission to be used for radiotelephony on the frequency 156.8 MHz shall be G3E (see No. 2944 and Appendix 19).

    2995 (2) However, ship stations which cannot transmit on 156.8 MHz should use any other available frequency on which attention might be attracted.

    2995A (3) The frequency 156.8 MHz may be used by aircraft Mob-83 stations for safety purposes only.

    2995B ' AD. 156.825 MHz ' Mob-83

    2995C 10A. The frequency 156.825 MHz is used exclusively in Mob-83 the maritime mobile service for distress and safety traffic by direct-printing telegraphy (see Nos. 2944, 3033 and 4393 and note k) of Appendix 18).

    2996 ' AE. 243 MHz ' Mob-83

    (See Nos. 501 and 642)

    [p.1230] 2997 ' AF. 406- 406.1 MHz Band ' Mob-83

    2997A   10B. The frequency band 406 - 406.1 MHz is used Mob-83 exclusively by satellite emergency position-indicating radiobeacons in the Earth-to-space direction (see No. 649).

    2998 ' AG. 1544 - 1545 MHz Band ' Mob-83

    2998A 10C. Use of the band 1544 - 1545 MHz (space-to-Earth) Mob-83 is limited to distress and safety operations (see No. 728) including:

    2998B a) feeder links of satellites needed to relay Mob-83 the emissions of satellite emergency position-indicating radiobeacons to earth stations;

    2998C b) narrow-band (space-to-Earth) links from Mob-83 space stations to mobile stations.

    2998D ' AH. 1645.5 - 1646.5 MHz Band ' Mob-83

    2998E   10D. Use of the band 1 645.5 -- 1 646.5 MHz Mob-83 (Earth-to-space) is limited to distress and safety operations (see No. 728).

    2999 ' AI. Aircraft in Distress ' Mob-83

    3000   11. Any aircraft in distress shall transmit the distress call on the frequency on which watch is kept by the land or mobile stations capable of helping it. When the call is intended for stations in the maritime mobile service, the provisions of Nos. 2970 and 2971 or 2973 and 2975 or 2994 and 2995 shall be complied with.

    3001 ' AJ. Survival Craft Stations ' Mob-83

    3002   12. Equipment provided for use in survival craft stations shall, if capable of operating on any frequency:

    3003 a) in the authorized bands between 415 kHz and Mob-83 526.5 kHz, be able to transmit with a carrier frequency of 500 kHz using either class A2A and A2B (13) or H2A and H2B (13) emissions. If a receiver is provided for any of these bands, it shall be able to receive class A2A and H2A emissions on a carrier frequency of 500 kHz;

    [p.1231] 3004 b) in the bands between 1 605 kHz and 2850 kHz, be able to transmit with a carrier frequency of 2 182 kHz using class A3E or H3E emissions. If a receiver is provided for any of these bands, it shall be able to receive class A3E and H3E emissions on a carrier frequency of 2 182 kHz;

    3005 c) in the bands between 4 000 kHz and 27500 kHz, be able to transmit with a carrier frequency of 8 364 kHz using class A2A or H2A emissions. If a receiver is provided for any of these bands, it shall be able to receive class A1A, A2A and H2A emissions throughout the band 8 341.75 - 8 728.5 kHz;

    3006 d) in the bands between 117.975 MHz and 136 MHz Mob-83 (137 MHz after 1 January 1990), be able to transmit on 121.5 MHz, using amplitude modulated emissions. If a receiver is provided for any of these band, it shall be able to receive class A3E emissions on121.5MHz
    e) in the bands between 156 MHz and 174 MHz, be able to transmit on 156.8 MHz using class G3E emissions. If a receiver is provided for any of these bands it shall be able to receive class G3E emissions on 156.8 MHz;

    3008 f) in the bands between 235 MHz and 328.6 MHz, be able to transmit on the frequency 243 MHz.

    3008A   12A. Equipment with digital selective calling Mob-83 facilities provided for use in survival craft shall, if capableof operating:

    3008B a) in the bands between 1 605 kHz and 2 850 Mob-83 kHz, be able to transmit on 2 187.5 kHz;

    3008C b) in the bands between 4 000 kHz and 27500 Mob-83 kHZ, be able to transmit on 8 375 kHz;

    3008D c) in the bands between 156 MHz and 174 MHz, be Mob-83 able to transmit on 156.525 MHz.

    Mob-83 Section II. Protection of Distress and Safety Frequencies

    3009 ' A. General '

    3010   13. Except as provided for in Nos. 2944, 2949 and Mob-83 3011, any emission capable of causing harmful interference to distress, alarm, urgency or safety communications on the international distress frequencies 500 kHz, 2 182 kHz or 156.8 MHz, or on the distress and safety calling frequencies 490 kHz, 2 187.5 KHz, 4 125 kHz, 4 188 kHz, 6 215.5 kHz, 6282 kHz, 8 375 kHz, 12 563 kHz, 16 750 kHz or 156.525 MHz is prohibited. Any emission causing harmful interference to distress and safety ommunications on any of the other frequencies identified in Section I of this Article is prohibited.

    [p.1232]

    3011   14. (1) Test transmissions shall be kept to a minimum on Mob-83 the frequencies identified in Section I of this Article and should, wherever practicable, be carried out on artificial antennas or with reduced power.

    3012 to 3015SUP Mob-83

    3016 (2) It is not permitted to transmit complete alarm Mob-83 signals for testing purposes on any frequency except for essential tests coordinated with component authorities. As an exception such tests are permitted for radiotelephone equipment which can operatee only on the international distress frequency 2 182 kHz, in which case a suitable artifical antenna shall be employed.

    3016A   14A (1) Before transmitting on any of the frequencies Mob-83 identified in Section I for distress and safety, a station shall listen on the frequency concerned to make sure that no distress transmission is being sent (see No. 4915).

    3016B (2) The provisions of No. 3016A do not apply to Mob-83 stations in distress.


    3017 ' B. 500 kHz '

    3018   15. (1) Apart from the transmissions authorized on 490 kHz Mob-83 and 500 kHz, and taking account of No. 4226, all transmissions on the frequencies included between 490 kHz and 510 kHz are forbidden (see No. 471 and Resolution 206 (Mob-83)).

    3019 (2) In order to facilitate the reception of distress calls, other transmissions on the frequency 500 kHz shall be reduced to a minimum, and in any case shall not exceed one minute.

    3020 and 3021 SUP Mob-83

    3022 ' C. 2182 kHz '

    3023   16. (1) Except for transmissions authorized on the carrier Mob-83 frequency 2182 kHz and on the frequencies 2174.5 kHz and 2187.5 kHz, all transmissions on the frequencies between 2 173.5 kHz and 2190.5 kHz are forbidden.

    3024 and 3025 SUP Mob-83

    3026 (4) To facilitate the reception of distress calls, all transmissions on 2182 kHz shall be kept to a minimum.

    3027 (5) At sea it is not permitted to radiate test Mob-83 transmissions of the radiotelephone alarm signal on the carrier frequency 2182 kHz. The function of the generator of the radiotelephone alarm signal shall be checked by aural monitoring without operating a transmitter. The transmitter shall be checked independently. During tests of the radio installation carried out by an administration or on behalf of an administration the radiotelephone [p.1233] alarm signal device should be checked with a suitable artificial antenna on frequencies other than 2 182 kHz. If the installation is capable of operating only on the frequency 2 182 kHz a suitable artificial antenna should be employed (see No. 3016).

    3028 (6) Before and after the tests performed using an Mob-83 artificial antenna in accordance with No. 3027, a suitable announcement should be made on the test frequency that the signals are or were for testing purposes only. The identification of the station should be included in the announcement.

    3029 to 3031SUP Mob-83

    3031A ' DA. 121.5 MHz, 123.1 MHz and 243 MHz ' Mob-83

    3031B   17A. On the frequencies 121.5 MHz, 123.1 MHz and 243 Mob-83 MHz transmissions other than those authorized are forbidden (see Nos. 501, 593, 642, 2990A and 2990B).

    3032 ' E. 156.8 MHz '

    3033 18. (1) All emissions in the band 156.7625 - 156.8375 MHz Mob-83 capable of causing harmful interference to the authorized transmissions of stations of the maritime mobile service on 156.8 MHz are forbidden. The frequency 156.825 MHz may, however, be used for the purposes described in No. 2995C subject to not causing harmful interference to authorized transmissions on 156.8 MHz (see also note k) of Appendix 18).

    3034 and 3035 SUP Mob-83

    3036 (4) To facilitate the reception of distress calls all transmissions on 156.8 MHz shall be kept to a minimum and shall not exceed one minute.

    Section III. Watch on Distress Frequencies

    3037 ' A. 500 kHz '

    3038   19. (1) In order to increase the safety of life at sea and Mob-83 over the sea, all stations of the maritime mobile service normally keeping watch on frequencies in the authorized bands between 415 kHz and 526.5 kHz shall, during their hours of service, take the necessary measures to ensure watch on the international distress frequency 500 kHz for three minutes twice an hour beginning at x h 15 and x h 45, Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) by an operator using headphones or loudspeaker.

    3039 (2) During the periods mentioned above, except for the Mob-83 emissions provided for in this Chapter on the frequency 500 kHz:

    [p.1234] 3040 a) transmissions shall cease in the bands Mob-83 between 485 kHz and 515 kHz (see also Resolution 206 (Mob-83));

    3041 b) outside these bands, transmissions of stations of the mobile service may continue; stations of the maritime mobile service may listen to these transmissions on the express condition that they first ensure watch on the distress frequency as required by No. 3038.

    3042   20. (1) Stations of the maritime mobile service open to Mob-83 public correspondence and using frequencies in the authorized bands between 415 kHz and 526.5 kHz shall, during their hours of service, remain on watch on 500 kHz. This watch is obligatory only for class A2A and H2A emissions.

    3043 (2) These stations, while observing the requirements of No.3038, are authorized to relinquish this watch only when they are engaged in communications on other frequencies.

    3044 (3) When they are engaged in such communications:

    3045 a) ship stations may maintain this watch on 500 kHz by means of an operator using headphones or a loudspeaker or by some appropriate means such as an automatic alarm receiver.:

    3046 b) coast stations may maintain this watch on 500 kHz by means of an operator using headphones or a loudspeaker; in the latter case an indication may be inserted in the List of Coast Stations.

    3046A (4) Ship stations, while observing the requirements of Mob-83 No. 3038, are also authorized to relinquish this watch (14) when it is impractical to listen by split headphones or by loudspeaker, and by order of the master in order to repair or carry out maintenance required to prevent imminent malfunction of:

    3946B a) equipment for radiocommunication used for Mob-83 safety;

    3946C b) radionavigational equipment; Mob-83

    3946D c) other electronic navigational equipment. Mob-83

    3046E (5) Ship stations fitted with an automatic alarm Mob-83 receiver should ensure the equipment is in operation whenever watch is relinquished under the terms of No. 3046A.

    3047 ' B. 2182 kHz '

    3048   21. (1) Coast stations which are open to public Mob-83 correspondence and which form an essential part of the coverage of the area for distress purposes shall, during their hours of service, maintain a watch on 2 182 kHz.

    [p.1235]

    3049 (2) These stations shall maintain this watch by means of an operator using some aural method, such as headphones, split headphones or loudspeaker.

    3050 (3) In addition, ship stations should keep the maximum watch practicable on the carrier frequency 2 182 kHz for receiving by any appropriate means the radiotelephone alarm signal described in No. 3270 and the navigational warning signal described in Nos. 3284, 3285 and 3286, as well as distress, urgency and safety signals.

    3051   22. Ship stations open to public correspondence should, as far as possible during their hours of service, keep watch on 2 182 kHz.

    3052   23. In order to increase the safety of life at sea and over the sea, all stations of the maritime mobile service normally keeping watch on frequencies in the authorized bands between 1 605 kHz and 2 850 kHz shall, during their hours of service, and as far as possible, take steps to keep watch on the international distress carrier frequency 2 182 kHz for three minutes twice each hour beginning at x h O0 et x h 30 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

    3052A   23A. During the periods referred to in No. 3052 all Mob-83 transmissions, except those provided for in this Chapter, shall cease in the band 2 173.5 - 2 190.5 kHz.

    3053 ' C. 4 125 kHz and 6 215.5 kHz '

    3054   24. (1) In the zone of Region 1 south of latitude 15ãN), Mob-83 in Region 2 (except Greenland) and in the zone of Region 3 south of latitude 25ã N, all coast stations which are open to public correspondence and which form an essential part of the coverage of the area for distress purposes may, during their hours of service, maintain a watch on the carrier frequencies 4 125 kHz and/or 6 215.5 kHz (see Nos. 2982 and 2986). Such watch should be indicated in the List of Coast Stations.

    3055 (2) These stations should maintain this watch by means of an operator using some aural method, such as headphones, split headphones or loudspeaker.

    3056 ' D. 156.8 MHz '

    3057   25. (1) A coast station providing an international maritime mobile radiotelephone service in the band 156 - 174 MHz and which forms an essential part of the coverage of the area for distress purposes should, during its working hours in that band, maintain an efficient aural watch on 156.8 MHz (see Recommendation 306).

    3058 (2) Ship stations should, where practicable, maintain watch on 156.8 MHz when within the service area of a coast station providing international maritime mobile radiotelephone service in the band 156 - 174 MHz. Ship stations fitted only with VHF radiotelephone equipment operating in the authorized bands between 156 MHz and 174 MHz, should maintain watch on 156.8 MHz when at sea.

    [p.1236]

    3059 (3) Ship stations, when in communication with a port station, may, on an exceptional basis and subject to the agreement of the administration concerned, continue to maintain watch, on the appropriate port operations frequency only, provided that watch on 156.8 MHz is being maintained by the port station.

    3060 (4) Ship stations, when in communication with a coast station in the ship movement service and subject to the agreement of the administrations concerned, may continue to maintain watch on the appropriate ship movement service frequency only, provided the watch on 156.8 MHz is being maintained by that coast station.

    3061 to NOT allocated. 3085


    [p.1237]

    Document No. 3 (cf. supra, p. 1217)

    ARTICLE 40

    Urgency and Safety Transmissions, and Medical Transports

    Section I. Urgency Signal and Messages

    3196   1.(1) In radiotelegraphy, the urgency signal consists of three repetitions of the group XXX, sent with the letters of each group and the successive groups clearly separated from each other. It shall be transmitted before the call.

    3197 (2) In radiotelephony, the urgency signal consists of three repetitions of the group PAN PAN, each word of the group pronounced as the French word "panne". The urgency signal shall be transmitted before the call.

    3198   2.(1) The urgency signal shall be sent only on the authority of the master or the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station or mobile earth station in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    3199 (2) The urgency signal may be transmitted by a land station or an earth station in the maritime mobile-satellite service at specified fixed points only with the approval of the responsible authority.

    3200   3.(1) The urgency signal indicates that the calling station has a very urgent message to transmit concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or the safety or a person.

    3201 (2) The urgency signal and message following it shall Mob-83 be sent on one or more of the international distress frequencies 500 kHz, 2182 kHz, 156.8 MHz, the supplementary distress frequencies 4 125 kHz and 6215.5 kHz, the aeronautical emergency frequency 121.5 MHz, the frequency 243 MHz or on any other frequency which may be used in case of distress.

    3202 (3) However, in the maritime mobile service, the message shall be transmitted on a working frequency:

    a) in the case of a long message or a medical call; ' or '

    b) in areas of heavy traffic in the case of the repetition of a message transmitted in accordance with the provisions laid down in No. 3201.

    An indication to this effect shall be given at the end of the call.

    3203 (4) The urgency signal shall have priority over all other communications, except distress. All stations which hear it shall take care not to interfere with the transmission of the message which follows the urgency signal.

    320 (5) In the maritime mobile service, urgency messages may beaddressed either to all stations or to a particular station.

    [p.1238]

    3205   4.Messages preceded by the urgency signal shall, as a general rule, be drawn up in plain language.

    3206   5.(1) Mobile stations which hear the urgency signal shall continue to listen for at least three minutes. At the end of this period, if no urgency message has been heard, a land station should, if possible, be notified of the receipt of the urgency signal. Thereafter, normal working may be resumed.

    3207 (2) However, land and mobile stations which are in communication on frequencies other than those used for the transmission of the urgency signal and of the call which follows it may continue their normal work without interruption provided the urgency message is not addressed "to all stations" (CQ).

    3208   6.When the urgency signal has been sent before transmitting a message "to all stations" (CQ) which calls for action by the stations receiving the message, the station responsible for its transmission shall cancel it as soon as it knows that action is no longer necessary. This message of cancellation shall likewise be addressed "to all stations" (CQ).

    Section II. Medical Transports

    3209   7.The term "medical transports", as defined in the Mob-83 1949 Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols, refers to any means of transportation by land, water or air, whether military or civilian, permanent or temporary, assigned exclusively to medical transportation and under the control of a competent authority of a party to a conflict or of neutral States and of other States not parties to an armed conflict, when these ships, craft and aircraft assist the wounded, the sick and the shipwrecked.

    3210   8.For the purpose of announcing and identifying medical transports which are protected under the above-mentioned Conventions, a complete transmission of the urgency signals described in Nos. 3196 and 3197 shall be followed by the addition of the single group YYY in radiotelegraphy and by the addition of the single word MAY-DEE-CAL, pronounced as in French "médical", in radiotelephony.

    3211   9.The frequencies specified in No. 3201 may be used by medical transports for the purpose of self-identification and to establish communications. As soon as practicable, communications shall be transferred to an appropriate working frequency.

    3212 10. The use of the signals described in No. 3210 indicates that the message which follows concerns a protected medical transport. The message shall convey the following data:

    3213 a) the call sign or other recognized means of identification of the medical transport;

    3214 b) position of the medical transport;

    3215 c) number and type of medical transports;

    [p.1239]

    3216 d) intended route;

    3217 e) estimated time en route and of departure and arrival, as appropriate;

    3218 f) any other information, such as flight altitude, radio frequencies guarded, languages used and secondary surveillance radar modes and codes.

    3219   11. The provisions of Section I of this Article shall apply as appropriate to the use of the urgency signal by medical transports.

    3219A   11A. The identification and location of medical Mob-83 transports at sea may be effected by means of appropriate standard maritime radar transponders.

    3219B   11B. The identification and location of aircraft Mob-83 medical transports may be effected by the use of the secondary surveillance radar (SSR) system specified in Annex 10 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation.

    3220  12.The use of radiocommunications for announcing and identifying medical transports is optional; however, if they are used, the provisions of these Regulations and particularly of this Section and of Articles 37 and 38 shall apply.

    Section III. Safety Signal and Messages

    3221   13. (1) In radiotelegraphy, the safety signal consists of three repetitions of the group TTT, the individual letters of each group and the successive groups being clearly separated from each other. It shall be sent before the call.

    3222 (2) In radiotelephony, the safety signal consists of the word SECURITE pronounced clearly as in French, spoken three times and transmitted before the call.

    3223   14. (1) The safety signal indicates that the station is about to transmit a message containing an important navigational or an important meteorological warning.

    3224 (2) The safety signal and call shall be sent on one or more of the international distress frequencies (500 kHz, 2 182 kHz, 156.8 MHz) or on any other frequency which may be used in case of distress.

    3225 (3) The safety message which follows the call should be sent on a working frequency. A suitable announcement to this effect shall be made at the end of the call.

    3226 (4) In the maritime mobile service, safety messages shall generally be addressed to all stations. In some cases, however, they may be addressed to a particular station.

    [p.1240]

    3227   15. (1) With the exception of messages transmitted at fixed times, the safety signal, when used in the maritime mobile service, shall be transmitted towards the end of the first available period of silence (see No. 3038 for radiotelegraphy and No. 3052 for radiotelephony); the message shall be transmitted immediately after the period of silence.

    3228 (2) In the cases prescribed in Nos. 3328, 3331 and 3335, the safety signal and the message which follows it shall be transmitted as soon as possible, and shall be repeated at the end of the first period of silence which follows.

    3229   16. All stations hearing the safety signal shall listen to the safety message until they are satisfied that the message is of no concern to them. They shall not make any transmission likely to interfere with the message.

    3230 to NOT attributed. 3254


    [p.1241] Document No. 4 (cf. supra, p. 1217)

    INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION

    INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS,
    RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AND
    PROCEDURES FOR AIR NAVIGATION SERVICES

    AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS

    ANNEX 10

    TO THE CONVENTION ON
    INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION

    VOLUME II

    (COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES
    including those with PANS status)

    FOURTH EDITION OF VOLUME II -- APRIL 1985

    CHAPTER 5 -- Aeronautical Mobile Service
    (extract)

    5.3.3.- Radiotelephony urgency communications

    5.3.3.1 ' Action by the aircraft reporting an urgency condition except as indicated in 5.3.3.4). '

    5.3.3.1.1. In addition to being preceded by the radiotelephony urgency PAN, PAN (see 5.3.1.2), preferably spoken three times and each word of the group pronounced as the French word "panne", the urgency message to be sent by an aircraft reporting an urgency condition shall:

    a) be on the air-ground frequency in use at the time;

    b) consist of as many as required of the following elements spoken distinctly and, if possible, in the following order:

    1) the name of the station addressed;

    2) the identification of the aircraft;

    3) the nature of the urgency condition;

    4) the intention of the person in command;

    5) present position, level (i.e. Flight level, altitude, etc., as appropriate) and heading;

    6) any other useful information.

    [p.1242]

    ' Note 1. -- The foregoing provisions of 5.3. 1. 1 are not intended to prevent an aircraft broadcasting an urgency message, if time and circumstances make this course preferable. '

    ' Note 2. -- The station addressed will normally be that station communicating with the aircraft or in whose area of responsibility the aircraft is operating. '

    5.3.3.2 ' Action by the station addressed or first station acknowledging the urgency message '

    5.3.3.2.1 The station addressed by an aircraft reporting an urgency condition, or first station acknowledging the urgency message, shall: a) acknowledge the urgency message;

    b) take immediate action to ensure that all necessary information is made available, as soon as possible, to:

    1) the ATS united concerned;

    2) the aircraft operating agency concerned, or its representative, in accordance with pre-established arrangements;

    ' Note. -- The requirement to inform the aircraft operating agency concerned does not have priority over any other action which involves the safety of the flight in distress, or of any other flight in the area, or which might affect the progress of expected flights in the area. '

    c) if necessary, exercise control of communications.

    5.3.3.3 ' Action by all other stations '

    5.3.3.3.1 The urgency communications have priority over all other communications, except distress, and all stations shall take care not to interfere with the transmisison of urgency traffic.

    5.3.3.4 ' Action by an aircraft used for medical transports '

    5.3.3.4.1 The use of the signal described in 5.3.3.4.2 shall indicate that the message which follows concerns a protected medical transport pursuant to the 1949 Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols.

    5.3.3.4.2 For the purpose of announcing and identifying aircraft used for medical transports, a transmission of the radiotelephony urgency signal PAN, PAN preferably spoken three times, and each word of the group pronounced as the French word "panne", shall be followed by the radiotelephony signal for medical transports MAYDEE-CAL, pronounced as in the French "médical". The use of the signals described above indicates that the message which follows concerns a protected medical transport. The message shall convey the following data:

    a) the call sign or other recognized means of identification of the medical transports;

    b) position of the medical transports;

    c) number and type of medical transports;

    [p.1243] d) intended route;

    e) estimated time en route and of departure and arrival, as appropriate; and

    f) any other information such as flight altitude, radio frequencies guarded, languages used, and secondary surveillance radar modes and codes.

    5.3.3.5 ' Action by the station addressed or by other stations receiving a medical transports message. '

    5.3.3.5.1 The provisions of 5.3.3.2 and 5.3.3.3 shall apply as appropriate to stations receiving a medical transports message.


    Document No. 5 (cf. supra, p. 1218)

    INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS UNION

    RADIO REGULATIONS Edition of 1982 Revised in 1985 (Extract)

    RESOLUTION No. 10

    Relating to the Use of Radiotelegraph and Readiotelephone
    Links by the Red Cross, Red Crescent,
    and Red Lion and Sun organizations

    The World Administrative Radio Conference, Geneva, 1979,

    ' considering '

    a) that the worldwide relief work of the Red Cross, Red Crescent, and Red Lion and Sun Organizations is of increasing importance and often indispensable;

    b) that in such circumstances normal communication facilities are frequently overloaded, damaged, completely interrupted or not available;

    c) that it is necessary to facilitate by all possible measures the reliable intervention of these national and international organizations;

    [p.1244] d) that rapid and independent contact is essential to the intervention of these organizations;

    e) that for international relief work of the Red Cross, it is necessary that the national Red Cross, Red Crescent, and Red Lion and Sun Organizations be able to communicate with each other as well as with the International Committee of the Red Cross and the League of Red Cross Societies;

    ' decides to urge administrations '

    1. to take account of the possible needs of the Red Cross, Red Crescent, and Red Lion and Sun Organizations for communication by radio when normal communication facilities are interrupted or not available;

    2. to assign to these organizations the minimum number of necessary working frequencies in accordance with the Table of frequency Allocations; in the case of fixed circuits between 3 MHz and 30 MHz, the frequencies shall be selected, as far as possible, adjacent to the amateur bands;

    3. to take all practicable steps to protect such links from harmful interference.


    Document No. 6 (cf. supra, p. 1218)


    RESOLUTION No. 18 (Mob-83)

    Relating to the Procedure for Identifying and Announcing the Position
    of Ships and Aircraft of States Not Parties to an Armed Conflict

    The World Administrative Radio Conference for the Mobile Services, Geneva, 1983,

    ' considering '

    a) that ships and aircraft encounter considerable risk in the vicinity of an area of armed conflict;

    b) that for the safety of life and property it is desirable for ships and aircraft of States not parties to an armed conflict to be able to identify themselves and announce their position in such circumstances;

    c) that radiocommunications offers such ships and aircraft a rapid means of self-identification and providing location information prior to their entering areas of armed conflict and during their passage through the areas;

    d) that it is considered desirable to provide a supplementary signal and procedure for use, in accordance with customary practice, in the area of armed conflict by ships and aircraft of States representing themselves as not parties to an armed conflict; [p.1245]

    ' resolves '

    1. that the frequencies specified in No. 3201 of the Radio Regulations may be used by ships and aircraft of States not parties to an armed conflict for self-identification and establishing communications. The transmission will consist of the urgency or safety signals, as appropriate, described in Article 40 followed by the addition of the single group "NNN" in radiotelegraphy and by the addition of the single word "NEUTRAL" pronounce as in French "neutral" in radiotelephony. As soon as practicable, communications shall be transferred to an appropriate working frequency;

    2. that the use of the signal as described in the preceding paragraph indicates that the message which follows concerns a ship or aircraft of a State not party to an armed conflict. The message shall convey at least the following data:

    a) call sign or other recognized means of identification of such ship or aircraft;

    b) position of such ship or aircraft;

    c) number and type of such ships or aircraft;

    d) intended route;

    e) estimated time en route and of departure and arrival, as appropriate;

    f) any other information, such as flight altitude, radio frequencies guarded, languages and secondary surveillance radar modes and codes;

    3. that the provisions of Sections I and III of Article 40 shall apply as appropriate to the use of the urgency and safety signals, respectively, by such ship or aircraft;

    4. that the identification and location of ships of a State not party to an armed conflict may be effected by means of appropriate standard maritime radar transponders. The identification and location of aircraft of a State not party to an armed conflict may be effected by the use of the secondary surveillance radar (SSR) system in accordance with procedures to be recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO);

    5. that the use of the signals described above would not confer or imply recognition of any rights or duties of a State not party to an armed conflict or a party to the conflict, except as may be recognized by common agreement between the parties to the conflict and a non-party;

    6. to encourage parties to a conflict to enter into such agreements;

    ' request the Secretary-General '

    to communicate the contents of this Resolution to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for such action as they may consider appropriate;

    ' requests the CCIR '

    to recommend an appropriate signal in the digital selective calling system for use in the maritime mobile service and other appropriate information as necessary.


    NOTES (1) [(1) p.1216] O.R. XII, p. 203, CDDH/II/SR.73, para. 35;

    (2) [(2) p.1217] O.R. I, Part I, pp. 209-210, Res. 19, para. 1. Cf. Res. 19, infra, p. 1519. Prior to its adoption by the Diplomatic Conference in 1977, the text of Resolution 19 had been communicated to the ITU for information at the third session in 1976. See the introduction to Chapter III, "1976", supra, p. 1192;

    (3) [(3) p.1218] ICAO, Annex 10, Vol. II, pp. 66-67, section 5.3.3.4, "Action by an aircraft used for medical transports";

    (4) [(4) p.1218] Cf. Ph. Eberlin, ' Rapport de mer. Navires et marins au service de la Suisse et de la Croix-Rouge pendant la guerre de 1939-1945 ', Berne, 1970; id., "La modernisation de la signalisation protectrice et les communications des unités et moyens de transport sanitaires", in ' Studies and Essays in Honour of Jean Pictet ', op. cit., p. 47, particularly p. 69;

    (5) [(5) p.1218] Cf. introduction to Chapter III, supra, p. 1185;

    (6) [(6) p.1218] The red lion and sun emblem has not been used since 1980, cf. commentary Annex 1, Art. 1 (a), supra, p.1155;

    (7) [(1) p.1220] C.IX Mob-83 -- For the purposes of this Chapter, distress and safety communications include distress, urgency and safety calls and messages;

    (8) [(2) p.1221] 2934A.1 Mob-83 -- The term "Rescue Coordination Centre" refers to a facility designated by a competent national authority to perform rescue coordination functions consistent with the International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue (1979);

    (9) [(3) p.1222] 2942.1. Mob-83 -- Mobile stations communicating with the stations of the aeronautical mobile (R) service in bands allocated to the aeronautical mobile (R) service shall conform to the provisions of the Regulations which relate to that service and, as appropriate, any special arrangements between the governments concerned by which the aeronautical mobile (R) service is regulated;

    (10) [(4) p.1222] 2943.1 Mob-83 -- As an exception, the requirement to receive class A3E emissions on the carrier frequency 2 182 kHz may be made optional when permitted by national regulations;

    (11) [(1) p.1224] 2973.1 Mob-83 -- Where administrations provide at their coast stations a watch on 2 182 kHz for receiving class J3E emissions as well as class A3E and H3E emissions, ship stations may communicate with them using class J3E emissions;

    (12) [(2) p.1228] 2990A.1 Mob-83 -- Normally aircraft stations transmit distress and urgency messages on the working frequency in use at the time of the distress or urgency incident;

    (13) [(*) p.1230] This is to cater for the automatic reception of the radiotelegraph alarm signal;

    (14) [(3) p.1234] 3046A.1 Mob-83 -- For additional information see the relevant provisions of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea;