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AREAS OF NAVAL WARFARE
    SECTION IV : AREAS OF NAVAL WARFARE

    10. Subject to other applicable rules of the law of armed conflict at sea contained in this document or elsewhere, hostile actions by naval forces may be conducted in, on or over:

    (a) the territorial sea and internal waters, the land territories, the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf and, where applicable, the archipelagic waters, of belligerent States;
    (b) the high seas; and
    (c) subject to paragraphs 34 and 35, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf of neutral States.

    11. The parties to the conflict are encouraged to agree that no hostile actions will be conducted in marine areas
    containing:

    (a) rare or fragile ecosystems; or
    (b) the habitat of depleted, threatened or endangered species or other forms of marine life.

    12. In carrying out operations in areas where neutral States enjoy sovereign rights, jurisdiction, or other rights under general international law, belligerents shall have due regard for the legitimate rights and duties of those neutral States.


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