In the course of World War II the Allied Governments issued several declarations concerning the punishment of war criminals. On 7 October 1942 it was announced that a United Nations War Crimes Commission would be set up for the investigation of war crimes. It was not, however, until 20 October 1943, that the actual establishment of the Commission took place. In the Moscow Declaration of 30 October 1943, the Three main Allied Powers (United Kingdom, United States, USSR.) issued a joint statement that the German war criminals should be judged and punished in the countries in which their crimes were committed, but that, "the major criminals, whose offences have no particular geographical localization," would be punished " by the joint decision of the Governments of the Allies." The Agreement was drafted at a conference held in London from 26 June to 8 August 1945.
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (Tokyo 1948) was established by a special proclamation of General MacArthur as the Supreme Commander in the Far East for the Allied Powers.