Regional livestock study in the Great Horn of Africa
In August 2002, the International Committee of the Red Cross recognised that it needed to acquire a better understanding of the livestock sector, tension and/or conflict generated by competition over natural resources, and thus be able to respond more appropriately to conflict related emergencies amongst livestock owners. A study was commissioned and this report is the output from the resulting 9-month study from June 2003 to March 2004.
The main aims of the study were:
To provide a comprehensive picture of the current livestock/pastoralist sit uation and any anticipated future developments, and a working basis/reference for the next five years;
To design and submit regional livestock assistance guidelines, and a proposed course of action for the ICRC at both regional and country level. The study was also to document:
The changing role of livestock in agro-pastoralist, agriculturalist and nomadic pastoralist systems.
Any current livestock related tension or conflict elements and likely future developments.
Alternative support mechanisms for these livelihoods (beyond direct livestock interventions).
The link between animal and plant production in the area under consideration.
Whilst the main theme of the study is to document and identify how to deal with emergencies caused by conflict amongst livestock owning communities, reference is also made to emergencies caused by other factors such as drought, flood, pestilence, market access and trade embargoes that also lead to, or exacerbate, conflict.
Chapters 1 to 4 provide a background to the Greater Horn of Africa, the types of tension and conflict in the region, and their effects on livestock owners and their herds. These chapters provide information on how the livestock management system operates and how organisations such as the ICRC can best intervene at different stages of the crisis. This section includes an analysis of the problem in each country, and a discussion of the changing role of livestock.
Chapters 5 to 7 provide a history of past interventions, current policies, and existing networks, databases and early warning systems (EWS) in the region. Chapter 8 discusses the links between livesto ck and other ICRC activities in the region, whilst Chapter 9 identifies key interventions in the livestock sector and alternative livelihoods.