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Commentary - Qualified persons
    [p.91] Article 6 -- Qualified persons


    [p.92] 238 The XXth International Conference of the Red Cross (Vienna, 1965) adopted Resolution XXII, which stated that it was essential to make available -- in the event of an armed conflict -- to the Protecting Powers and their possible substitutes a sufficient number of persons capable of impartially carrying out the scrutiny of the application of the Conventions. It therefore invited States Parties to the Conventions to set up groups of competent persons to discharge these functions and expressed the wish that the International Committee of the Red Cross should contribute to the training of such persons.

    239 This proposal had been put forward by the Principality of Monaco, on the basis of an initiative of the Commission médico-juridique de Monaco, taken up again by the International Committee for the Neutrality of Medicine, created in Paris in 1959, which gave its name to it. (1) The idea was taken up again in 1971 in various forms during the first session of the Conference of Government Experts. (2) On the basis of these preliminary discussions and the replies given on this point by governments to the "Questionnaire concerning measures intended to reinforce the implementation of the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949", which the ICRC had addressed to them, (3) a first proposal was presented at the second session of the Conference of Government Experts in 1972. (4) In fact, the idea that States could train personnel with a view to facilitating the application of the Conventions and the future Protocol seemed to meet with more or less general approval. Several amendments to the ICRC proposal were suggested by the participants to the Conference, (5) in the light of which the Drafting Committee drew up a text (6) which, having gained a large measure of agreement, was finally incorporated as Article 6 in the draft submitted by the ICRC to the Diplomatic Conference.

    240 In Committee I of the Conference, the fundamental principles which form the basis of this text were again unanimously agreed. However, several amendments provoked a discussion (7) which resulted in some drafting changes, and the [p.93] incorporation in paragraph 1 of a clause concerning National Red Cross (and Red Crescent) Societies (8) which was not contained in the original draft. The article was then adopted by consensus, both in the Committee (9) and in the plenary meeting. (10) It will also be noted that Resolution 21 entitled "Dissemination of knowledge of international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts", annexed to the Protocol, also refers to this problem. In fact it invites the signatory States (and not only the Contracting Parties) to undertake the training of the personnel named in Article 6 . (11)

    Paragraph 1 -- Functions of qualified personnel

    241 This paragraph relates to the training of personnel "to facilitate the application of the Conventions and of this Protocol", and in particular the activities of the Protecting Powers. As stated above, the wording is identical to that which resulted from the second session of the Conference of Government Experts. At the Diplomatic Conference the participants had little to say on this part of the sentence. Yet thirty-two governments had expressed themselves at length on this point in their replies to the above-mentioned "Questionnaire" addressed to them by the ICRC, following a motion adopted by the first session of the Conference of Government Experts, and it is possible to draw a number of conclusions from these statements, which preceded the second session of the Conference of Government Experts.

    242 It should be recalled, first of all, that in the mind of those who had taken the initiative, the members of the International Committee for the Neutrality of Medicine, it was a question of promoting

    "the creation in each country of a corps of volunteers, doctors, lawyers, paramedical personnel who could be made available to belligerent countries, Protecting Powers, and the ICRC whenever necessary" (12)

    It was more particularly:

    "to create in each country national committees bringing together persons who, by virtue of their professional and moral qualities could contribute to the dissemination and implementation of the Geneva Conventions and bring relief to the victims of conflicts [.. ]" (13)

    [p.94]
    On the point of "national committees" the Diplomatic Conference took a position by the explicit mention of National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies to which this paragraph refers. Moreover, this question is linked to that of the recruitment and training of the personnel concerned; this will be examined in the context of paragraph 2. As regards the function of this personnel, the above-mentioned initiative was concerned as much with the dissemination "at all times" (14) of the Conventions, which means, already during peacetime and in national territory, as with supervising their implementation in time of conflict, as we have seen. Thus it is appropriate to try and ascertain if the wording of this paragraph can cover these two aspects of the matter, and to what extent.

    1. ' Activities of qualified personnel in peacetime '

    243 The text of this paragraph does not state explicitly that the qualified personnel will carry out its activities even in peacetime, but that the Contracting Parties will endeavour to train them also in peacetime. On the other hand, Resolution 21 annexed to the Protocol is more explicit since it

    "' invites ' the signatory States to take all appropriate measures to ensure that knowledge of international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts [...] is effectively disseminated, particularly by [...] undertaking in peacetime the training of suitable persons to teach international humanitarian law [...] in accordance with Articles 6 and 82 of the Protocol [...]"

    There is little doubt that Article 6 , paragraph 1, applies equally to dissemination during peacetime. However, its scope can be interpreted in an even wider sense. The measures for the execution of obligations under the Conventions and the Protocol which must be taken without delay by the High Contracting Parties under the terms of Article 80 (' Measures for execution ') cannot be improvised. The implementation of the Conventions and the Protocol raises numerous questions which must be broached or resolved in peacetime in the military and technical fields (for example, on the question of weaponry), in the legal field, particularly in criminal law, in the health and medical fields, in administration, as well as in the organization of relief for victims, and the solution of these problems requires the participation of highly qualified personnel. No doubt these are tasks which are incumbent in the first place on the authorities, as one delegation pointed out, (15) but it is quite conceivable that in order to carry out these tasks satisfactorily, they will rely on consultative groups, possibly even private groups consisting of qualified persons in the sense of Article 6 . It is even possible that without such competent personnel within the government administration or outside it, the application of Article 80 of the Protocol (' Measures for execution '), which enjoins the High Contracting Parties to take all necessary measures for the execution of their obligations without delay, might be held up.

    [p.95] 2. ' Activities of qualified personnel in time of armed conflict '

    244 The activities of qualified personnel in time of armed conflict can be approached under the terms of this paragraph from two different points of view. If the State on which such qualified personnel depends is itself engaged in the conflict, the personnel can make a contribution to the implementation of the Conventions and the Protocol by the State in conflict. If the State is not engaged in conflict, it may be called upon to play the role of a Protecting Power or to make its qualified personnel available to a Protecting Power or its substitute.

    a) ' Contribution by qualified personnel to implementation of the Conventions and the protocol by the State on which such personnel depends '

    245 The Conventions and the Protocol apply in full from the beginning of an armed conflict, which means in particular that the hostilities must be conducted in accordance with all the rules contained therein from the very first shots that are fired, or from the moment that one Party penetrates the territory of the adversary. The principal measures laid down in the Protocol for guaranteeing compliance with the rules are the intense dissemination of the applicable rules at all levels of the army, the attachment of legal advisers to military commanders and the giving of appropriate orders and instructions; in addition, the observation of the rules must be supervised. In view of the countless problems of all kinds resulting from the commencement of a conflict, the many different constraints burdening the authorities and military commanders, and the concern for military necessity which is all too likely to outweigh humanitarian considerations, it is self-evident that the existence of qualified personnel exclusively devoted to the proper application of the Conventions and the Protocol can at such a time be absolutely invaluable to every High Contracting Party engaged in armed conflict. Such is the primary aim of this paragraph. It is true that the phrase which states "the High Contracting Parties shall, also in peacetime, endeavour, with the assistance of the national [...] Societies" to train such personnel, is an obligation as regards conduct, and not as regards results. It is an undertaking to do all that is possible to ensure that such personnel is available. However, while taking into account national particularities, it reveals the concern of the Conference that every Contracting Party should establish a system of self-control capable of guaranteeing respect for the obligations entered upon, under the best possible conditions.

    b) ' Contribution by qualified personnel to the activities of the Protecting Powers '

    246 As we have seen, the proposal to train personnel so as to be qualified to assist the activities of the Protecting Powers was the main concern of Resolution XXII of the XXth International Conference of the Red Cross, which forms the basis of the article under consideration here. This idea is clearly reflected in the Protocol, even though it is only one of the options: the qualified personnel is called upon "to facilitate the application of the Conventions and of this Protocol, and in particular the activities of the Protecting Powers".

    [p.96] 247 One general remark contained in a government reply to the "Questionnaire" seems to correspond closely to a fairly commonly held opinion on this matter. This remark was to the effect that:

    "Since the system of supervision laid down by the Geneva Conventions has not proved satisfactory in practice, it would be better to improve it, but in doing so it would be essential to maintain that which already exists. The innovations should essentially consist of creating supplementary supervision mechanisms in such a way as to offer the Parties to the conflict a greater choice." (16)

    248 One of the main reasons, though by no means the only one, for the fact that the choice is limited, is that most States do not have qualified personnel available to play the role of a Protecting Power, and would consequently not even be able to lend their services. This is a question which primarily applies to the training of diplomatic personnel and which is raised by paragraph 2. Whether or not it is in relation to this aspect of the problem, the original purpose, as revealed by the resolution of the International Conference of the Red Cross adopted in Vienna, was certainly "to make available -- in the event of a conflict -- to the Protecting Powers and their possible substitutes a sufficient number of persons capable of carrying out this scrutiny impartially". The underlying idea is clearly present in the wording of this paragraph. However, the ambition of the second session of the Conference of Government Experts revealed even more specific objectives. Inspired particularly by the Regulations for the Execution of the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, some delegations recommended the training of teams consisting of doctors and lawyers (17) or even of officers, administrators, specialists in relief activities and other humanitarian activities. (18) In the event of armed conflict these teams would be called upon, either in their own territory, or as nationals of neutral States, in the territory of belligerent States, to facilitate the work of the delegates of Protecting Powers or their substitutes. (19) These specific points are not contained in the text of the Protocol, but there is nothing to stop the High Contracting Parties from interpreting the scope of the paragraph under consideration here in this sense.

    249 As regards the functions with which such teams would be charged, these are not precisely defined either, as the phrase "to facilitate [...] the activities of the Protecting Powers" opens the door to a wide range of possibilities. These may be the tasks expressly assigned to the Protecting Powers or their substitutes, by the [p.97] Conventions (20) or by the Protocol, (21) or resulting directly from these instruments, (22) in which case the teams would probably be attached to the personnel belonging to the institutions concerned. They may be new tasks resulting from the Protocol which the Protecting Powers or their substitutes are reluctant, for one reason or another, to assume.

    250 In this context it should be recalled that, at least in the eyes of the ICRC, the mandate of Protecting Powers regarding the application of the Conventions and of the Protocol should not be extended to include enquiries on violations of these instruments, of which the results would be made available in a public report, or would be brought to the attention of intergovernmental organizations. Moreover, the Conventions make it explicitly clear that the supervision to be exercised by Protecting Powers should not be confused with an enquiry into violations, as they have laid down a procedure for such an enquiry in a separate article (Article 52/53/132/149). (23) It is probably because it was aware of these limitations that the Government of Monaco had annexed draft regulations to its reply to the above-mentioned "Questionnaire" addressed to it by the ICRC. This draft had been elaborated by the Commission médico-juridique de Monaco, and was directly linked to the object of Article 6 . (24) Article 7 of this draft included, amongst the tasks assigned to the qualified personnel, establishing any violations of international humanitarian law, making enquiries relating to such violations, and any necessary steps to stop them. There is nothing left of this draft in the Protocol, but nevertheless the Protocol does indeed extend the field of application of international humanitarian law to the conduct of hostilities in the true sense, and the question of problems of supervision which result or may result from this, remains open. Thus it is not possible to exclude a priori from the scope of application of Article 6 , supervisory duties which, without falling under the competence of the Protecting Powers, could facilitate or even guarantee the activities of the latter. However, it is self-evident that such an extension of the mandate of qualified personnel referred to in this article is subject to the conclusion of special agreements in accordance with paragraph 4, if such personnel is to operate outside its own national territory.

    [p.98] Paragraph 2 -- Recruitment and training

    251 The problem of the recruitment and training of people so as to have qualified personnel is obviously closely linked to the functions the Contracting Parties envisage assigning such personnel -- for the text of paragraph 1 is primarily addressed to such Parties. These various possibilities have already been analysed and it should be recalled that they may cover military, legal, medical, technical, administrative and relief matters etc. The provisions of the Conventions and of the Protocol, which require the participation of such personnel for their proper application, define the task to be carried out. Governments are responsible for ensuring this, at a national level, and National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies are required to assist governments as appropriate.

    1. ' Recruitment '

    252 In principle suitable personnel can be recruited from persons employed by the State or from the population in general. The degree to which various professions are controlled by the State in the country concerned plays an important role in this respect. If the exercise of the medical profession is restricted to State employees, it is self-evident that qualified medical personnel can be recruited only from such State employees. In fact, this will always be the case with regard to training magistrates, diplomatic personnel or military commanders, though not necessarily in recruiting military experts. It will be noted that under the terms of Article 8/8/8/9 of the Conventions, the Protecting Powers may appoint, apart from their diplomatic or consular staff, delegates from amongst their own nationals or the nationals of other neutral Powers (or from another State not Party to the conflict). Thus in this field too, the recruitment can take place from outside the public sector. In military matters it may be possible to recruit personnel from the ranks of officers, particularly from military colleges who are able, for example, to provide instruction on the methods and means of attack, as well as from personnel who do not belong to the military administration and who are specialized in legal, technical and scientific fields etc.

    253 The aid of the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is probably most useful for the recruitment of suitable personnel outside the public sector, although the text, taken literally, only mentions their assistance for the training of the personnel concerned. When the National Society's competence to assist in recruitment is accepted, it will provide lists of persons of a high moral quality and indisputable impartiality, (25) who are competent in the field in question, and are chosen either from its own members, or, though always at a national level, from [p.99] the ranks or through the mediation of another appropriate institution. (26) for State employees, whether these be military personnel, diplomats, magistrates or other categories, the recruitment only seems to depend on the government itself.

    2. ' Training '

    254 In the field of training, though the primary responsibility certainly lies with the High Contracting Parties, the assistance of the National Red Cross or Red Crescent Society is required without restriction, i. e., both for personnel belonging to the public sector and for personnel belonging to the private sector. However, as for recruitment, competence lies at a national level. It is complementary in the sense that it applies to persons who must already be extremely competent in their expert area, whether this is in the military, legal, medical, technical, administrative or any other field. It is not up to the Protocol to ensure instruction in the military tactics, law, medicine, the sciences or business management, but to see that these areas of expertise are available, even in peacetime, for the purpose of dissemination, implementation and enforcement, and once hostilities have broken out, for the purpose of applying the rules, so as to meet the requirements of international humanitarian law.

    255 In this context the National Societies should, first of all, independently inculcate the "qualified personnel" with a knowledge of the fundamental principles of the Red Cross. "Technical" training should be geared to the Conventions and the Protocol, since it is a matter of facilitating the application of these instruments. Although competence is expressly centred at a national level, there is nothing to prevent national Societies, or even Contracting Parties, from resorting to the assistance of the International Committee of the Red Cross in this field. Resolution 21 annexed to the Protocol, entitled "Dissemination of knowledge of international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts", in fact invites the authorities of the signatory States

    "to plan and give effect, if necessary with the assistance and advice of the International Committee of the Red Cross, to arrangements to teach international humanitarian law, particularly to the armed forces and to appropriate administrative authorities in a manner suited to national circumstances".

    [p.100] It will be noted that the Resolution is addressed to the "signatory States", while the text of the Protocol itself is always aimed at the Contracting Parties. This means that States which are called to become Contracting Parties are encouraged to implement this resolution, and consequently to apply this Article 6 without waiting for ratification. This objective is all the more understandable as it is clear that, as indicated above, it will actually facilitate the ratification process.

    256 The National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies are expressly invited by the above-mentioned resolution to offer their assistance to their respective governmental authorities with the aim of contributing in particular to the good understanding of international humanitarian law, which is obviously an essential prerequisite for the training of qualified personnel. From the ICRC, the resolution expects the publication of the necessary material for instruction, as well as organization or cooperation in establishing and running appropriate courses and seminars.

    257 However, this task, which is expected of the ICRC, and which it carries out to the best of its ability, (27) is intended to support the activities of the High Contracting Parties and the signatory States, and not to take the place of such activities. It is to be hoped that National Societies will encourage setting up permanent inter-departmental committees in every country, as some of them have done already. These would be responsible in particular for organizing the training of the personnel covered by this article, with the cooperation of the National Societies.

    Paragraph 3 -- Transmission of lists

    258 The transmission through the ICRC of lists of persons trained in accordance with Article 6 is basically intended to be of help in case of armed conflicts. This provision supplements that contained in paragraph 3 of Article 5 (' Appointment of Protecting powers and of their substitute '). Under the terms of that provision, if a Protecting Power has not been designated or accepted, the ICRC may ask each Party to provide it with a list of at least five States which that Party considers acceptable to act on its behalf, and another list of at least five States which it would accept as the Protecting Power of the other Party. The ICRC will compare them and seek the agreement of any proposed State named on both lists.

    259 If this procedure fails because there is no common ground between the proposals of the one side and the conditions imposed by the other, the ICRC may try another approach, either in conjunction with Article 6 , or not. It may offer its own services in accordance with paragraph 4 of Article 5 (' Appointment of Protecting Powers and of their substitute '), or transmit any lists of qualified personnel which the Contracting Parties have communicated to it. Furthermore, [p.101] it is not impossible that a State which is a prospective Protecting Power or has already been accepted as such may wish to receive the same lists, for example in the case where it considered that it lacked qualified personnel. Admittedly the text confines itself to stating that the ICRC will keep the lists available for the Contracting Parties. However, since under the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 5 (' Appointment of Protecting Powers and of their sustitute '), the obligation to accept without delay an offer which may be made by the International Committee of the Red Cross or by any other organization which offers all guarantees of impartiality and efficacy, is subject to prior consultation and to the result of such consultations, the transmission to the Parties to the conflict or to other States which are prospective Protecting Powers of the above-mentioned lists, may in some cases fall under these consultations.

    Paragraph 4 -- Special agreements

    260 This paragraph provides that the employment of the qualified personnel covered by this article outside national territory shall, in each case, be the subject of special agreements between the Parties concerned. A number of different cases can be envisaged.

    261 Under the terms of Article 8/8/8/9 of the Conventions, Protecting Powers may appoint, apart from their diplomatic or consular staff, delegates from amongst their own nationals or the nationals of other neutral Powers. Such delegates may be chosen from amongst qualified personnel trained in accordance with the provisions of this article. However, as they have no diplomatic or consular status, they must receive an ad hoc approval which will grant them a status likely to correspond to that of the diplomatic and consular staff of the Protecting Power. Such a clause was implied in the Conventions. It is self-evident that in such a case the mandate of the qualified personnel cannot exceed that of the Protecting Power itself.

    262 If such teams are called upon to exercise their activities under the authority of the ICRC, they must receive special approval, in the same way as the delegates of the ICRC itself. Their mandate will be defined either by the terms of the mission of the ICRC, as they result, in the case in question, from the Conventions and the Protocol, or through the consultations which the ICRC has carried out in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 5 ('Appointment of Protecting Powers and of their substitute '). Their status will probably be the same as that of ICRC delegates.

    263 Finally, if qualified personnel covered by this article were to act independently of the Protecting Power or the ICRC, it would be all the more important to have a special agreement. This agreement would be concluded either between the country making qualified personnel available (or countries, if the teams are multinational) and the Parties to the conflict concerned, or between the organization representing them, on an ad hoc basis or otherwise, and the same Parties to the conflict. It should include in particular a list of the accredited delegates, define their functions, especially with regard to establishing whether violations have been committed and carrying out enquiries, if such is the wish of [p.102] the Contracting Parties. The agreement should, furthermore, determine their status and the allocation of expenses. The Parties concerned could be guided by the draft regulations established by the Commission médico-juridique de Monaco. (28)

    ' J. de P. '


    NOTES

    (1) The resolution presented in this respect in 1964 at the Second International Conference on Medical Neutrality draws to the attention of States Parties to the Geneva Conventions that it is possible and timely to enter into negotiations on a model agreement. By such an agreement the said States would undertake to take the necessary measures to train, in their respective territories, ' groups of persons ' able to carry out the functions of implementation and supervision laid down in the four Conventions. These persons will be appointed by their respective governments on the recommendation of the most representative organizations concerned, taking into account their moral reputation and their ability to assist in enforcing the scrupulous compliance with the rules of the Conventions. Lists of persons established and kept up to date for this purpose will be the subject of periodic communications, particularly to the ICRC, which will be invited to contribute to their training. Exchanges between national groups will also be arranged for this purpose. See ' Government replies, ' Annex 2, p. 09;

    (2) ' CE 1971, Report, ' p. 108, paras. 539-541; p. 113, Annex I, sub-para. 7(c); p. 114, paras. 10-11 and 14; p. 116. CE/COM IV/4;

    (3) ' Government replies, ' particularly p. 4 and pp. 65-73;

    (4) ' CE 1972, Report, ' Vol. I, pp. 183-184;

    (5) ' CE 1972, Report, ' Vol. II, pp.101 and 105-106, ad draft Article 7; for the discussion, ibid., Vol. I, pp. 183-184, paras. 4.88-4.95;

    (6) Ibid., pp. 184-185, paras. 4.96-4.97;

    (7) O.R. III, pp. 36-38, and O.R. VIII, pp. 175-181, CDDH/I/SR.19; pp. 251-252, CDDH/I/SR.26;

    (8) Since July 1980 there has been no Society with the name "Red Lion and Sun", nor any Party to the Conventions using this sign;

    (9) O.R. VIII, p. 252, CDDH/I/SR.26;

    (10) O.R. VI, p. 68, CDDH/SR.37;

    (11) On this subject, see infra, para. 2, point 2, p. 99;

    (12) Translated by the ICRC; original text: "la création, dans chaque pays, d'un corps de volontaires, de médecins, de juristes, d'auxiliaires médicaux qui pourraient être mis à la disposition des pays belligérants, des Puissances protectrices, du CICR, chaque fois que cela serait nécessaire", Second International Congress on the Neutrality of Medicine, ' Compte rendu analytigue des débats, ' Paris, Institut Pasteur, 12-14 November 1964, p. 40;

    (13) Translated by the ICRC; original text: "de créer dans chaque pays des "Comités nationaux" groupant des personnalités qui, en raison de leurs qualités professionnelles et morales, pourraient contribuer à la diffusion et à l'application des Conventions de Genève tout en portant secours aux victimes de conflits [...]" Ibid;

    (14) Resolution of the Second Congress mentioned above;

    (15) O.R. VIII p. 180, CDDH/I/SR.19, para. 51;

    (16) Translated by the ICRC; original text: "Du moment que, dans la pratique, le système de contrôle prévu par les Conventions de Genève ne s'est pas avéré satisfaisant, il y aurait avantage à introduire certaines innovations, mais ce faisant, il faudrait à tout prix maintenir ce qui existe déjà. Les innovations devraient essentiellement consister à créer des possibilités de contrôle supplémentaire, de manière à offrir un plus grand choix aux Parties au conflit." ' Government replies, ' p. 17;

    (17) Ibid., p. 70;

    (18) ' CE 1972, Report, ' Vol. II, p. 101, ad draft Art. 7;

    (19) ' Government replies, ' p. 70;

    (20) See ' Commentary I, ' Art. 8; ' Commentary II, ' Art. 8; ' Commentary III, ' Art. 8; ' Commentary IV, ' Art. 9. A complete list can also be found in F. Siordet, op. cit. See also ' RICR, ' March-April 1985, pp. 86-95;

    (21) See commentary Art. 5, supra, p. 75;

    (22) For example, confirming the civilian character of works or installations containing dangerous forces (Art. 56, para. 1) or confirming that a declared non-defended locality fulfils the conditions laid down (Art. 59). For other examples also see United Nations General Assembly, Report of the Secretary-General, A/8052, p. 78, para. 247;

    (23) ' Commentary Drafts, ' p. 9. It should be noted that the two amendments to the draft Art. 79bis (present Art. 90, "International Fact-Finding Commission") explicitly laid down that the Commission could appoint qualified persons as mentioned in Art. 6 as experts assisting it (O.R. III, p. 339, CDDH/I/241, and Add. 1; p. 341, CDDH/I/267). However, these proposals found hardly any support and are therefore not contained in the final wording of Art. 90;

    (24) ' Government replies, ' Annex 1, Draft regulation for the execution of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the protection of the victims of war, pp. 01-08;

    (25) Ibid., p. 04, Art. 6;

    (26) A proposal presented at the first session of the Conference of Government Experts envisaged the establishment of teams consisting of one representative of the national Red Cross, one international lawyer, one representative from an international non-governmental organization, of high international standing, of which this proposal mentions, by way of example, Amnesty International, the International Association of Democratic Lawyers, Friends World Committee for Consultation (Quakers), the International Commission of Jurists and the World Veterans Federation (' CE 1971, Report, ' pp. 115-116, CE/COM IV/4). In its report to the Second International Congress on the Neutrality of Medicine, the Commission médico-juridique de Monaco proposed in this respect to consult the World Medical Association, the national groups of the Institut de droit international and the International Law Association, as well as the national committees of the International Committee on the Neutrality of Medicine, op. cit., p. 120;

    (27) In cooperation with the League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the ICRC encourages the instruction of international humanitarian law, particularly in faculties of law and political science, military academies, and faculties of medicine and social sciences. It carries out enquiries in universities on the current position of this instruction in conjunction with the National Societies of the countries concerned;

    (28) ' Government replies, ' Annex I, pp. 01-08;