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1949 Conventions and Additional Protocols, and their Commentaries
Historical Treaties and Documents
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977.
The instrument of ratification contained the following understandings (original in English language):
"a) The application of Protocol I, particularly Articles 1(4), 4 and 96(3) shall not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict, nor the legal status of the concerned territory; as such, no claim of status of belligerency may be invoked therefrom;
b) The application of Protocol I may in no case be invoked in internal armed conflicts within sovereign States;
c) The terms “armed conflict” and “conflict” do not include the commission of ordinary crimes, whether collective or isolated."
Ratification / Accession
Reservation / Declaration