ICRC databases on international humanitarian law
Treaties and Documents
1949 Conventions and Additional Protocols, and their Commentaries
Historical Treaties and Documents
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977.
The Government of Japan declares that it is its understanding that the situation described in the second sentence of paragreaph 3 of Article 44 can exist only in occupied territory or in armed conflicts covered by paragraph 4 of Article 1. The Government of Japan also declares that the term "deployment" in paragraph 3 (b) of Article 44 is interpreted as meaning any movement towards a place from which an attack is to be launched.
The Government of Japan understands that the competence of the International Fact-Finding Commisssion which it recognizes ipso facto and without special agreement by the attached declaration is effective only with regard to facts subsequent to the date of the said declaration."
Ratification / Accession
Reservation / Declaration
Declaration Article 90