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Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Lieber Code). 24 April 1863.
Section I : Martial law -- Military jurisdiction -- Military necessity -- Retaliation - Art. 18.
Art. 18. When a commander of a besieged place expels the noncombatants, in order to lessen the number of those who consume his stock of provisions, it is lawful, though an extreme measure, to drive them back, so as to hasten on the surrender.