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Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Lieber Code). 24 April 1863.
Section I : Martial law -- Military jurisdiction -- Military necessity -- Retaliation - Art. 26.
Art. 26. Commanding generals may cause the magistrates and civil officers of the hostile country to take the oath of temporary allegiance or an oath of fidelity to their own victorious government or rulers, and they may expel everyone who declines to do so. But whether they do so or not, the people and their civil officers owe strict obedience to them as long as they hold sway over the district or country, at the peril of their lives.