Treaties, States Parties and Commentaries
Treaties and Documents
Geneva Conventions of 1949 and Additional Protocols, and their Commentaries
Historical Treaties and Documents
Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Lieber Code). 24 April 1863.
Section V : Safe-conduct -- Spies -- War-traitors -- Captured messengers -- Abuse of the flag of truce - Art. 103.
Art. 103. Spies, war-traitors, and war-rebels are not exchanged according to the common law of war. The exchange of such persons would require a special cartel, authorized by the government, or, at a great distance from it, by the chief commander of the army in the field.