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Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Lieber Code). 24 April 1863.
Section VII : Parole - Art. 127.
Art. 127. No noncommissioned officer or private can give his parole except through an officer. Individual paroles not given through an officer are not only void, but subject the individuals giving them to the punishment of death as deserters. The only admissible exception is where individuals, properly separated from their commands, have suffered long confinement without the possibility of being paroled through an officer.