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Manual of the Laws of Naval War. Oxford, 9 August 1913.
Section II : On the armed force of belligerent states - Art. 12.
Art. 12. Privateering, private vessels, public vessels not war-ships. Privateering is forbidden.
Apart from the conditions laid down in Articles 3
and following, neither public nor private vessels, nor their personnel, may commit acts of hostility against the enemy.
Both may, however, use force to defend themselves against the attack of an enemy vessel.