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Rule 149 : Responsibility for Violations of International Humanitarian Law

Rule 149. A State is responsible for violations of international humanitarian law attributable to it, including:
    (a) violations committed by its organs, including its armed forces;
    (b) violations committed by persons or entities it empowered to exercise elements of governmental authority;
    (c) violations committed by persons or groups acting in fact on its instructions, or under its direction or control; and
    (d) violations committed by private persons or groups which it acknowledges and adopts as its own conduct.

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