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Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Lieber Code). 24 April 1863.
Section I : Martial law -- Military jurisdiction -- Military necessity -- Retaliation - Art. 25.
Art. 25. In modern regular wars of the Europeans, and their descendants in other portions of the globe, protection of the inoffensive citizen of the hostile country is the rule; privation and disturbance of private relations are the exceptions.