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Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Lieber Code). 24 April 1863.
Section II : Public and private property of the enemy -- Protection of persons, and especially of women, of religion, the arts and sciences -- Punishment of crimes against the inhabitants of hostile countries - Art. 43.
Art. 43. Therefore, in a war between the United States and a belligerent which admits of slavery, if a person held in bondage by that belligerent be captured by or come as a fugitive under the protection of the military forces of the United States, such person is immediately entitled to the rights and privileges of a freeman. To return such person into slavery would amount to enslaving a free person, and neither the United States nor any officer under their authority can enslave any human being. Moreover, a person so made free by the law of war is under the shield of the law of nations, and the former owner or State can have, by the law of postliminy, no belligerent lien or claim of service.