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Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Lieber Code). 24 April 1863.
Section III : Deserters -- Prisoners of war -- Hostages -- Booty on the battle-field. - Art. 74.
Art. 74. A prisoner of war, being a public enemy, is the prisoner of the government, and not of the captor. No ransom cam be paid by a prisoner of war to his individual captor or to any officer in command. The government alone releases captives, according to rules prescribed by itself.