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Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Lieber Code). 24 April 1863.
Section IV : Partisans -- Armed enemies not belonging to the hostile army -- Scouts -- Armed prowlers -- War-rebels - Art. 84.
Art. 84. Armed prowlers, by whatever names they may be called, or persons of the enemy's territory, who steal within the lines of the hostile army for the purpose of robbing, killing, or of destroying bridges, roads or canals, or of robbing or destroying the mail, or of cutting the telegraph wires, are not entitled to the privileges of the prisoner of war.