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Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Lieber Code). 24 April 1863.
Section X : Insurrection -- Civil war -- Rebellion - Art. 152.
Art. 152. When humanity induces the adoption of the rules of regular war to ward rebels, whether the adoption is partial or entire, it does in no way whatever imply a partial or complete acknowledgement of their government, if they have set up one, or of them, as an independent and sovereign power. Neutrals have no right to make the adoption of the rules of war by the assailed government toward rebels the ground of their own acknowledgment of the revolted people as an independent power.