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Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Lieber Code). 24 April 1863.
Section X : Insurrection -- Civil war -- Rebellion - Art. 154.
Art. 154. Treating, in the field, the rebellious enemy according to the law and usages of war has never prevented the legitimate government from trying the leaders of the rebellion or chief rebels for high treason, and from treating them accordingly, unless they are included in a general amnesty.