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Manual of the Laws of Naval War. Oxford, 9 August 1913.
Section V : On the rights and duties of the belligerent with regard to individuals - Art. 69.
Art. 69. F. Requisition of nationals of the enemy State -- Guides, pilots, and hostages. A belligerent has no right to force persons who fall into his power, or nationals of the adverse party in general, to take part in the operations of the war directed against their own country, even when they were in his service before the beginning of the war, or to compel them to furnish information concerning their own State, its forces, its military position, or its means of defense.
He cannot force them to act as guides or as pilots.
He may, however, punish those who knowingly and voluntarily offer themselves in order to mislead him.
Compelling nationals of a belligerent to swear allegiance to the enemy Power is not permitted.
The taking of hostages is forbidden.