ICRC databases on international humanitarian law
Treaties and Documents
1949 Conventions and Additional Protocols, and their Commentaries
Historical Treaties and Documents
Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict The Hague, 26 March 1999
Serious violations of this Protocol
Article 15 Serious violations of this Protocol
1. Any person commits an offence within the meaning of this Protocol if that person intentionally and in violation of the Convention or this Protocol commits any of the following acts:
a. making cultural property under enhanced protection the object of attack;
b. using cultural property under enhanced protection or its immediate surroundings in support of military action;
c. extensive destruction or appropriation of cultural property protected under the Convention and this Protocol;
d. making cultural property protected under the Convention and this Protocol the object of attack;
e. theft, pillage or misappropriation of, or acts of vandalism directed against cultural property protected under the Convention.
2. Each Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law the offences set forth in this Article and to make such offences punishable by appropriate penalties. When doing so, Parties shall comply with general principles of law and international law, including the rules extending individual criminal responsibility to persons other than those who directly commit the act.