International law and the military use of unmanned maritime systems

Unmanned maritime systems (UMSs) comprise an important subcategory of unmanned military devices. While much of the normative debate concerning the use of unmanned aerial and land-based devices applies equally to those employed on or under water, UMS present unique challenges in understanding the application of existing law. This article summarizes the technological state of the art before considering, in turn, the legal status of UMSs, particularly under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), and the regulation of their use under the law of naval warfare. It is not yet clear if UMSs enjoy status as ships under UNCLOS; even if they do, it is unlikely that they can be classified as warships. Nevertheless, their lawful use is not necessarily precluded in either peacetime or armed conflict.

About the authors

Michael N. Schmitt

Michael N. Schmitt
Professor and Director of the Stockton Center for the Study of International Law, United States Naval War College

Michael N. Schmitt is Charles H. Stockton Professor and Director of the Stockton Center for the Study of International Law, United States Naval War College; Professor of Public International Law at Exeter University; and Senior Fellow at the NATO Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence.

David S. Goddard
Royal Navy

David S. Goddard is a barrister serving in the Royal Navy and posted, at the time this article was written, as a faculty member of the Stockton Center for the Study of International Law at the US Naval War College.

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