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Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Lieber Code). 24 April 1863.
Section II : Public and private property of the enemy -- Protection of persons, and especially of women, of religion, the arts and sciences -- Punishment of crimes against the inhabitants of hostile countries - Art. 34.
Art. 34. As a general rule, the property belonging to churches, to hospitals, or other establishments of an exclusively charitable character, to establishments of education, or foundations for the promotion of knowledge, whether public schools, universities, academies of learning or observatories, museums of the fine arts, or of a scientific character -- such property is not to be considered public property in the sense of paragraph 31; but it may be taxed or used when the public service may require it.