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Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Lieber Code). 24 April 1863.
Section III : Deserters -- Prisoners of war -- Hostages -- Booty on the battle-field. - Art. 69.
Art. 69. Outposts, sentinels, or pickets are not to be fired upon, except to drive them in, or when a positive order, special or general, has been issued to that effect.