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Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Lieber Code). 24 April 1863.
Section III : Deserters -- Prisoners of war -- Hostages -- Booty on the battle-field. - Art. 78.
Art. 78. If prisoners of war having given no pledge nor made any promise on their honor, forcibly or otherwise escape, and are captured again in battle after having rejoined their own army, they shall not be punished for their escape, but shall be treated as simple prisoners of war, although they will be subjected to stricter confinement.