In an increasingly urban world, armed conflict and violence has also been urbanizing. Today, approximately 50 million people are affected by urban armed conflict, leading to mass displacement, destruction of critical infrastructure and interrupted or inadequate provision of basic public services. What steps can be taken to better protect civilian population in urban centers and ensure continuity in the provision of vital services in times of conflict? What are the specific challenges faced in urban warfare? Is IHL still adequate for the conflicts that take place in these settings? This edition of the Review attempts to answer these questions, and provide some insights into how the international community should approach war in cities.