The handbook identifies the extent of civilian harm resulting from combat taking place in urban areas. It highlights those aspects of the Law of Armed Conflict which are particularly relevant in urban areas. It presents to military commanders at brigade and battalion level a series of examples of good practice to reduce civilian harm, grouped under the headings of doctrine; training; planning and conduct of operations. It also offers specific guidance on operations that might not be conducted routinely by armed forces, such as planning and conducting evacuations and the screening of populations. It is relevant to commanders in state armed forces worldwide, particularly those involved in writing doctrine, overseeing training or planning for combat in urban areas.