Archived page: may contain outdated information!

Revised integrated appeal of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement in response to the situation in the Balkans

26-07-1999 Operational Update

The conflict that erupted in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia at the end of March 1999, affecting neighbouring countries particularly Albania and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, has ended, with the episodes of violence against the civilian population on the wane. The vast majority of Albanians who fled Kosovo in recent months are now returning home, and concurrently, large numbers of Serbs, Roma and others have decided to leave for Serbia and Montenegro. Consequently, the region has not stabilized and critical political, social, economic and humanitarian issues have still to be addressed. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (International Federation) are committed to continuing a wide range of programmes.

The integrated and regional strategy, devised at the outset of the Balkan crisis last March, remains the foundation of the approach and thus combines the international scope of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement with the experience of local structures, namely the National Societies. The integrated operation will enable the Movement to work both inside Yugoslavia and in neighbouring countries, thereby ensuring that while the international community focuses on events in Kosovo, adequate humanitarian responses are equally available throughout the rest of Yugoslavia, Albania and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

In the Movement's initial appeal, launched on 7 April 1999, the possibility that great changes would occur - in what was a very fluid situation - was anticipated. The transformed environment in t he Balkans has led to the decision to present a revised integrated appeal, based on new operating assumptions, and hence the need for more financial resources to take the operation through to the end of 1999. Across the region as a whole countless people are in need of assistance and protection in this immediate post-settlement phase. This revised appeal, covering the period from July to December 1999, considers the needs of returning refugees, those still in exile, the displaced and vulnerable groups whose circumstances have worsened due to the crisis. Particular emphasis will be placed on: visiting prisoners; providing support to the families of persons unaccounted for; carrying out protection activities in favour of the civilian population; delivering emergency assistance to displaced persons, returnees, refugees and the socially vulnerable; offering emergency medical supplies and rehabilitating medical and social institutions; strengthening civil society by supporting local Red Cross structures throughout the region.

The integrated appeal of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement in response to the situation in the Balkans, for the period April through December 1999 now   amounts to Sfr 325.48 million, of which Sfr 182.48 million is in cash. After taking account of donations already received or firmly pledged in cash, kind and services, a further Sfr 120.28 million is sought  .  

 General Situation  

The Balkan region has just emerged from a period marked by the air campaign against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, launched by NATO on 23 March 1999 and the operations carried out by the Serbian armed and security forces. The impact of the crisis in humanitarian terms has been profound . Close to a milli on people were driven from their homes and had to seek refuge in, Albania, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, as well as within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. This human exodus has been characterized as the most significant movement of refugees in Europe since 1945.   A massive international effort was required to assist these people, to complement the responses initiated by the governments in the host countries.

Tens of thousands of people were separated from their families in the process; many of them remain unaccounted for; a number of them are believed to be in detention and many more are feared to have been killed.

The international community is now focusing its attention on a series of challenges: the reconstruction of Kosovo and reconciling the province's two main population groups; providing humanitarian assistance to large areas of Serbia and Montenegro affected by the air strikes and attending to the needs of vulnerable groups in Albania and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; and creating a basis for long-term stability in the region.

 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia  

The Military Technical Agreement, signed by the Yugoslav armed forces and NATO on 10 June resulted in the withdrawal of all Yugoslav armed and security forces from Kosovo and the province has seen the deployment to date of some 32,000 troops of the NATO-led international security force, better known as KFOR. In parallel, a complex international civil administration is being established in Kosovo within the framework of the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). A variety of humanitarian programmes to help vulnerable people throughout Yugoslavia are planned and, working with civil authorities, the Yugoslav Red Cross will continue to fulfil an important function in this regard.

 Serbia and Montenegro  

In Serbia and Montenegro, civilians continue to face hardship resulting from the effects of the war and the displacements of civilians from Kosovo. Thousands of people fled their homes. They require food and non-food assistance through direct distributions. Many of them also require assistance in rebuilding their homes. Many people are left without jobs due to damage inflicted on workplaces, adding to the number of socially vulnerable people. Whole communities of Serbs, Montenegrins and Romas who have fled Kosovo in recent weeks are anxious to communicate with relatives remaining in the province, and in need of food and non-food assistance.

There are other long-term consequences to be addressed in Serbia and Montenegro, such as the repair of water supply systems and heating needs during the forthcoming winter. Medical and social institutions also have substantial supply and rehabilitation needs.

The current emergency should not overshadow the hardship that half a million long-term refugees, who fled previous conflicts in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and settled in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, have been facing for a long time.


The end of hostilities and the withdrawal of the Yugoslav forces has prompted a spontaneous and massive return to the province of refugees from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Albania, and displaced persons from Montenegro. Despite the risk involved in such an uncoordinated process, in particular the threat posed by land mines and unexploded ordnance, hundreds of thousands of Kosovo Albanians have opted to deal with the tensions and hardship in their communities of origin rather than remain in exile. Their situation is often precarious, w ith concerns ranging from the anxiety at a relative remaining unaccounted for, to food insecurity, health problems and damaged property.

Despite the deployment of KFOR, a security vacuum, characterized by numerous acts of reprisal and violence against Serbs, Montenegrins and Roma, has developed. Thus far, the climate of violence has prompted some 100,000 persons, mainly Serbs to leave Kosovo for Serbia and Montenegro.

In addition to the long-term needs of returnees and vulnerable members of society for food and non-food assistance, the situation in Kosovo raises concerns about the ability of key social and medical institutions to provide effective service in this period of transition. The concerns relate to material support to the institutions, rehabilitation programmes and staff training/motivation. Access to essential services includes water supply and clean wells.

Daily, dozens of families have reported allegations of arrests to the ICRC in Pristina. The number of persons currently known to be held under the authority of the Ministry of Justice of Serbia is approximately 2,000. The ICRC had access to a first group of 331 on 6 July 1999, has been notified of the others and secured the release of 166 detainees on 25 June 1999. Further visits are to take place primarily to inform families of the whereabouts of their relatives. Furthermore, some 350 Serbs have reportedly been abducted over the last 12 months. This figure includes some 140 persons who remain unaccounted for since the summer of 1998 and persons allegedly abducted since the signing of the Military Technical Agreement.

Numerous families are confronted daily with the enduring uncertainty about the fate of a missing relative. Numbers and identities of persons unaccounted for are not yet available in any comprehensive form; support both in terms of tracing and counselling is critical; coordination between international and local actors is crucial in carrying out exhumations and identifications, in order to help families give relatives a decent burial.


From late March, over the following two months, approximately 446,000 people, mostly ethnic Albanians, entered Albania. While some 100,000 refugees were accommodated in tented camps and collective shelters, the remaining 346,000 Kosovo refugees were given refuge by local Albanian families. Following the cessation of hostilities in mid-June, the vast majority of the refugee population has been returning to Kosovo, with some 50,000 remaining in Albania by mid-July and the number still decreasing.

While the focus of assistance to the victims of this crisis now shifts increasingly to supporting the returnee population, the impact of the refugee influx will continue to tax the country's economic and social fabric heavily: it seems a sizeable portion of the refugee population will remain in Albania for some months to come, possibly over the winter period; in addition, Albania is one of the least developed countries in Europe and even prior to the refugee influx, levels of social vulnerability were rising.

 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia  

From late March through mid-June, more than 300,000 people streamed into the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, many staying with host families. The steady flow of refugees continued until the Military Technical Agreement was signed on 10 June. As KFOR troops entered Kosovo, the flow reversed. Every day, tens of thousands returned to Kosovo. To date, over 200,000 people have returned to Kosovo, 91,000 have been evacuated to third countries and, as of mid-July, there are an estimated 30,000 refugees remaining in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Additionally , a few hundred ethnic Serbs have fled Kosovo to this country in the recent past.

While most aid agencies are scaling down operations, the Macedonian Red Cross is continuing to assist the remaining refugees. The Former   Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has become the logistics centre for most of the humanitarian aid to Kosovo.

The disruption to trade and investment caused by the hostilities, combined with the cost of supporting the refugees has taken a heavy toll on the Macedonian economy. Over one third of the able population is unemployed and economic contraction is forecast for 1999.

 Red Cross / Red Crescent Movement Response  

At the outset of the Balkans crisis in late March 1999, the ICRC and the International Federation adopted an integrated and regional approach to respond to the humanitarian needs of the region and established a Steering Group to ensure general co-ordination of the Movement's operations. This strategy and structure is firmly maintained in this new phase, in order to continue pursuing a consistent and coherent Red Cross / Red Crescent response.

The combined participation of all the components of the Movement (the ICRC, the International Federation and National Societies of the countries directly affected by the long-term implications of the crisis and of third countries), in accordance with the Seville agreement, should confirm the specific ability of the Movement to respond to needs both within and outside the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. This response will be examined in detail by a wide-ranging review to be conducted between September and November 1999, which will look critically at all elements of the operation to date.

For legitimate reasons, the focus of the international and humanitarian community is currently on Kosovo. The priority is to help the communities deal with the long-term consequences of the conflict and support key local, health and social institutions to remain operational in the transitional phase. It is equally important to help strengthen the civil society through support to the local Red Cross structures. The Movement however wishes to ensure that needs in the rest of Yugoslavia, Albania and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia are similarly addressed, both in terms of protection, assistance and rehabilitation programmes.

 Capacity of the National Society/International Federation/ICRC  

 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia  

Despite severe financial constraints imposed by cuts in state funding and a limited ability to raise donations from individuals and companies affected by the economic crisis, the 210 branches of the Yugoslav Red Cross remain the largest and most effective distribution network in the country. Cooperation between the International Federation, Yugoslav Red Cross and ICRC in Yugoslavia has been strengthened by the setting-up of four joint field offices in Belgrade, Novi Sad, Nis and Kraljevo. A Memorandum of Understanding, on the field office structure, signed in early July between the three organizations outlines their respective roles and responsibilities. Mutual support, consultation and cooperation are expected to continue further in 1999. Currently, as the lead agency for the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the ICRC has 60 expatriates and 160 local staff, while the International Federation has 10 delegates and 45 local staff assigned to the country.

Depending on the evolution of the situation in Kosovo, the Movement's efforts will focus on the reconstruction of the province's Red Cross structure in order to re-establish its operational capacity. Primarily, these efforts concern the rehabilitation of the local Red Cross branches damaged during the conflict and will be achieved through reconstruction, the provision of office equipment and direct support to the Red Cross branches and staff. In the next few months, a prime focus of the international components of the Movement in Kosovo will be to establish the necessary contacts with volunteers providing services to the population and with the authorities with the aim of helping create a Red Cross organization which reflects the actual fabric of society.


The Albanian Red Cross with its network of 36 branches - and some 2,500 volunteers and staff directly involved in the refugee operation - has, during the present crisis, proved its ability and willingness to cope with a major disaster thus enhancing its reputation as Albania's foremost domestic humanitarian agency. The Movement's delegation is based in Tirana with a sub-delegation in Kukes. During the emergency phase of the Kosovo refugee crisis the delegation developed substantial human resource and logistical capacity to support the National Society. Currently, as the lead agency for Albania, the International Federation has 39 delegates and 68 local staff, while the ICRC has 16 expatriates and 40 local staff assigned to the country. The next phase of the operation resulting from the diminished emergency and redefinition of needs will be addressed by the streamlining and consolidation of the delegation structure.

 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia  

The Macedonian Red Cross has traditional capacities covering blood donor mobil ization, disaster preparedness and youth activities and water safety training for volunteers and youth. A total of 125 staff and about 600 Red Cross volunteers are involved in the current relief operation for refugees and the socially vulnerable. The National Society has an information centre in Skopje which provides advice, psychological counselling, and other services for refugees. Both the International Federation and the ICRC have deployed substantial human resources in the country and at the peak of the crisis there were almost 100 expatriate delegates supported by a similar number of local staff working with the Macedonian Red Cross on programme management and implementation. Currently, as the lead agency for the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the International Federation has 14 delegates and 25 local staff, while the ICRC has 21 expatriates and 60 local staff assigned to the country. As in Albania, a streamlining and consolidation of the delegation structure is underway as the refugee operation reduces.


The plan of action presented below has been developed on the basis of intense consultations with major United Nations agencies and other international organizations.

 Ongoing plan of action for the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia  

 The International Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement is pursuing the following objectives:  


 (Serbia/Montenegro )

- obtaining notification of and access to all persons arrested and detained by the Yugoslav, Serbian and Montenegrin authorities in connection with the confli ct - regardless of the detaining authority and the place of detention - in order to ascertain their whereabouts and conditions of detention, restore contact between them and their families, and to facilitate their release and transfer;

- helping address possible shortages in or interruption of basic services that would affect conditions in places of detention, through dialogue with the authorities or, where relevant, provision of assistance;

- restoring contact between members of dispersed families, be they Kosovo Albanians displaced from Kosovo to Montenegro or Kosovo Serbs, Montenegrins or others displaced from Kosovo to Serbia or Montenegro; provide necessary support for family reunification in a secure environment, in particular for persons whose security is threatened;

- helping create a mechanism through which requests concerning persons unaccounted for can be channelled to the Yugoslav, Serbian and Montenegrin authorities;

- collecting information on persons reportedly arrested, abducted or deceased and on events that have forced people to flee from Kosovo.


- taking every possible step to help protect all ethnic groups within Kosovo   from acts of violence such as reprisals, expulsions, looting, etc.;

- obtaining access to all persons arrested and detained by KFOR, to ascertain their conditions of detention and restoring contact with their families;

- establishing effective liaison mechanisms on issues related to detention and missing persons with other concerned international organizations and structures such as UNMIK, PHR, ICMP, KFOR, etc;

- restoring contact between members of dispersed families, whether within Kosovo itself, between Kosovo and the rest of Yugoslavia or between Kosovo and third countries, be they Kosovo Albanians, Serbs or others; to that end, setting up a network of 10 mobile family communication units designed to provide the entire population with rapid means of contacting relatives;

- helping set up a mechanism through which requests concerning persons unaccounted for can be channelled to the Kosovo Liberation Army and other Kosovo Albanian political representatives;

- collecting information on persons reportedly arrested, abducted or deceased and on events that have forced people to flee from Kosovo;

- assisting the families of persons who are detained, remain unaccounted for or who have been killed, in particular by helping to clarify the fate   and whereabouts of relatives and by providing psychological, legal and administrative counselling; to that end, setting up six support and counselling centres throughout Kosovo.

 Relief and health assistance  


- implementing, in cooperation with the Yugoslav Red Cross, a programme of food and non-food relief for 200,000 internally displaced persons in Serbia and Montenegro;

- implementing, in cooperation with the Yugoslav Red Cross, a programme of soup kitchens providing a daily hot meal to 100,000 vulnerable persons in Serbia;

- complementing the WFP food distribution programme to meet the needs of 400,000 long-term refugees (from Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia) in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, while increasing the variety of the items;

 - providing essential hygiene sets to meet the needs of 225,500 of the most vulnerable refugees in the Federal Republic of Yu goslavia and baby hygiene parcels to 8,000 refugee mothers with new-born babies;

 - ensuring a timely distribution of winter jackets and shoes for some 80,000 refugee children between the age of 0-14 years as a part of the larger winterization programme planned by the Movement;

 - providing laboratory equipment to local institutions to help them conduct standard water quality control tests in localities in southern Serbia, such as Nis, Bela Pelanke, Leskovac and Lebane and cleaning kits for 780 refugee collective centres;

- carrying out a programme of support to social institutions and individuals affected by the air campaign, in particular by helping to provide glass panes for window repairs, spare parts and chemicals to ensure stable water treatment and supply, in localities in southern Serbia such as Nis, Bela Pelanke, Leskovac, Lebane;

- ensuring the supply of medical items including both surgical and essential drugs to health structures in Serbia and Montenegro, and to branches of the Yugoslav Red Cross;

- continuing to support psycho-social activities benefiting refugees and the socially vulnerable, including help-lines and professional counselling services for the traumatized local population, especially children.


- responding to short-term food requirements of the resident and returning population in Kosovo through emergency distributions (food assistance for 150,000 persons for 2 months);

- providing public kitchen services to 30,000 beneficiaries in the seven major population centres; providing a winter programme for 125,000 people - boots, clothes, stoves, winter fuel;

- in a mid-term perspective, promoting and supporting development of programmes for vulnerable sectors aimed at restoring basic economic stability and self-suf ficiency (agro programmes: winter wheat and fertilizer for 15,000 families, spare parts for tractors, vaccination programme for cattle);

- carrying out programmes of cleaning and disinfecting contaminated wells (average of 100 wells a month) throughout Kosovo with a view to providing resident and returning population access to safe drinking water;

- supplying water boards in Kosovo (Djakovica, Gnjilane, Mitrovica, Pec, Pristina and Prizren) with spare parts needed to ensure the functioning of water plants (pumps, chlorinators, etc,); further supply necessary chemicals for water treatment plants;

- providing the main public health institutions in Kosovo (Djakovica, Gnjilane, Mitrovica, Pec, Pristina and Prizren) with necessary spare parts, laboratory equipment and products to ensure proper water quality controls; carry out related staff training programmes;

- providing generators and technical assistance where necessary to ensure electricity supply to meet emergency needs in hospitals in Kosovo;

- providing surgical supplies for the 6 regional hospitals in Kosovo (Djakovica, Gnjilane, Mitrovica, Pec, Pristina and Prizren); blood transfusion supplies (equipment, reagents, serum for testing transmissible diseases); helping keep the regional hospitals operational, inter alia, by providing teams from National Societies for staff training/motivation;

- supporting the health system, in particular through the reconstruction, re-equipment of ambulantas, the provision of essential drugs and medicines for the treatment of chronic disease and staff training programmes for these structures;

- contributing to the reconstruction of schools;

- developing complementary psycho-social activities benefiting the traumatized local population, especially children;

- coordinating National Societies'programmes in reconstruction activities and for the prov ision of supplies to social institutions (psychiatric institutes), their rehabilitation and training of their staff;

- in all these programmes, coordinating closely with the UNMIK humanitarian section and other key humanitarian agencies, with a view to ensuring transparency and coherence.

 Preventive action  

 (Serbia and Montenegro)  

- carrying out a needs assessment on the population's awareness of unexploded ordnance and, if necessary, implementing a programme in close collaboration with the Yugoslav Red Cross;

- continuing actively to press for training in the law of armed conflict and in humanitarian principles to be included in the curricula of military and police institutes.


- on the basis of a completed needs assessment, carrying out a landmines awareness programme throughout Kosovo;

- on the basis of a completed needs assessment, implementing a community-based education programme addressing physical risks from hazardous materials and objects (e.g. mines, unexploded ordnance, exploded tanks/vehicles, fallen electricity cables, etc) linked to the wider psychological project is proposed;

- proposing services to UNMIK with a view to helping to train the future police force in Kosovo on humanitarian/human rights law;

- proposing services to KFOR with a view to carrying out dissemination sessions to its various contingents.

 Structural support to the National Society  

- carrying out specific consultations with the Yugoslav Red Cross and Kosovo Albanian Red Cross representatives on the future of the Red Cross structure in Kosovo, its leadership and staff, and help them establish a strong and representative Red Cross that can conduct humanitarian activities for the benefit of the most vulnerable irrespective of their ethnic origins.

- providing material and financial resources to the Yugoslav Red Cross to help strengthen its capacity, in particular by supporting the National Society's institutional and programme development, including branch level income-generating projects, health and youth;

- supporting the Yugoslav Red Cross and its ability to respond to long-term consequences of the conflict;

- continuing to operate the network of joint YRC/ICRC/International Federation field offices in Belgrade, Novi Sad, Nis and Kraljevo.

 Ongoing plan of action for Albania  

 The International Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement is pursuing the following objectives:  


- continuing visits to all persons held in connection with the events of 1997, monitoring their conditions of detention and regularly submitting reports to the relevant authorities with a view to improving the conditions;

- providing vulnerable persons with all the services necessary to re-establish contact with their families, for instance, through Red Cross messages (RCMs), free telephone calls and tracing requests; maintaining access to the new Family-links Website in Kukes and Tirana;

- continuing to identify and register vulnerable persons separated by the just-ended conflict in Kosovo; maintaining regular contacts with diplomatic representations in Tirana to help the vulnerable with visa procedures with a view to organizing family reunions in neighbouring and third countries.

 Relief and health assistance  

- continuing to provide support for up to 50,000 remaining refugees and their host families through the provision of food (complementing WFP programmes) and non-food distributions, including hygiene and baby parcels;

- in cooperation with the Albanian Red Cross, assisting up to 50,000 most vulnerable members of the indigenous population through the provision of food parcels;

- supporting returnees through the establishment of first-aid posts or mobile clinics at strategic points and the provision of overnight rest points with basic facilities (e.g. food and water);

- establishing a winterization programme for all the remaining refugees in host families, providing appropriate shelter materials, mattresses, blankets, stoves and cooking sets winter clothing, shoes and heating fuel;

- assisting the Albanian Red Cross with a social welfare/psychological support programme and providing school and recreation kits;

- continuing the medical evacuation of the war-wounded as long as needed and support home care centres treating them;

- responding to the health needs for remaining refugees and their host families through the provision of medical and surgical supplies for local medical facilities;

- responding to the health needs of the most vulnerable living in homes for the elderly, orphanages and centres for the disabled;

- continuing support to Albanian Red Cross health education programmes.

 Preventive action  

- promoting safe behaviour among the populati on living in areas contaminated by mines/unexploded ordnance; initiating and implementing a sustainable mine awareness programme, through media and other public awareness efforts and enabling the Albanian Red Cross to play a pivotal role through training activities and the provision of relevant support material;

- disseminating information to returnees regarding conditions in Kosovo and to refugees remaining in Albania about available assistance from the Red Cross Red Crescent Movement.

 Structural support to the National Society  

- providing institutional support to the Albanian Red Cross headquarters and branches (including office space and equipment, income generation means, telecom equipment and vehicles) to strengthen its emergency response, disaster preparedness capacity, and traditional programmes;

- offering training to the Albanian Red Cross staff in vulnerability and capacity assessment, health education, logistics warehousing reporting and monitoring, media/publicity, psycho-social support, tracing and refresher courses for first-aid and disaster preparedness teams;

- on the basis of the present logistics bases in Tirana and Durres, maintaining the logistics/relief capacity of the Albanian Red Cross (through the purchase of a central warehouse in Tirana), and three regional warehouses in Shkodra, Fier and Tirana.

 Ongoing plan of action for the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia  

 The International Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement is pursuing the following objectives:  


- concluding a fo rmal agreement with Macedonian authorities on visits to security detainees;

- maintaining a tracing and communication network to help remaining refugees retain family links and contact relatives in third countries and inform them of their situation; provide access to the new Family-links Website in Skopje and Tetovo;

- continuing to identify and register vulnerable persons separated from their families by the just-ended conflict in Kosovo; provide for family reunions within the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as well as within Kosovo and Albania;

- establishing a tracing backup service in Skopje in order to manage and centralize all data on persons unaccounted for, detainees and prisoners held in relation to the conflict in Kosovo.

 Relief and health assistance (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia  )  

- through Red Cross branches, continuing to distribute food (in conjunction with WFP) and non-food items (hygiene and baby parcels) to up to 20,000 refugees and their host families and 65,000 socially vulnerable families in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia;

- providing returnees with bottled water and biscuits at border crossing points served by Macedonian Red Cross teams and also a medical emergency assistance unit at the Blace border crossing;

- providing a winterization programme for all remaining refugees in host families (including plastic sheeting, mattresses, blankets, winter clothes and shoes);

- maintaining the logistics bases in Skopje to support ongoing operations in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Kosovo;

- assisting the Macedonian Red Cross with a social welfare/psychological support programme and provide educational and recreational kits; 

- implementing water and sanitation projects in towns and villages hosting refugees and the socially vulnerable ;

 Structural support to the National Society  

- providing institutional support to the Macedonian Red Cross headquarters and branches (including office equipment, income generation means, telecom equipment, vehicles and training) to assist in strengthening its emergency response, disaster preparedness capacity, and traditional programmes, including media and publicity activities;

- providing material assistance, and some funding, to the Macedonian Red Cross for their children's summer camps for the Macedonian and refugee population .  

 Preventive action (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)  

- encouraging the armed forces command to improve training in the law of armed conflict, hold a number of basic courses and instructors'workshops and obtain a firm commitment at senior level on the implementation of a national training programme;

- concluding an agreement with the Minister of the Interior on a plan to offer general and training courses to as many police officers as possible;

- proceeding with the implementation of the programme on the promotion of human values in primary, secondary and high schools.

 Ongoing plan of action for other countries  

 The International Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement is pursuing the following objectives:  

- implementing a programme in both entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina for six months to assist up to 40,000 refugees living with host families or in government centres with food parcels (individual) and hygiene parcels (one parcel for five people for one month) distributed monthly.


This appeal is a revision of the integrated appeal launched on 7 April 1999, and designed to cover the Movement's activities for an initial period running from April to September 1999. This period has now been extended to the end of December 1999 and the plan of action modified to take into account changes in the needs of beneficiaries. This means that the budget presented now covers the period from 1 April to 31 December 1999. It includes all major purchases for a complete winter programme.

 Budget for the revised integrated appeal of the International Red Cross and the Red Crescent Movement in response to the crisis in the Balkans  

 April y December 1999  

  (million Sfr)  


 FR Yugoslavia  

 FYR Macedonia  


 Other countries  


Initial integr ated appeal budget (7 April)






 Revised Appeal budget  







Relief and health assistance






Preventive action






Structural support to National Societies




0.0 0


 Subytotal Cash/Kind/ Services  







Overhead 6.5% *






Reserve 10% *






 Total Cash/kind/ services  







out of which inykind






out of which inyservice






 Total cash  






 * cash only  

 Financial situation as per 15 July 1999  

initial budget (7 April)



estimated expenditure AprilyJune




 revised budget (a)  



 total received as per 15 July (b)  



contributions received in cash



contributions received in kind



contributions received in service



 cash contributions pledged in written as per 15 July (c)  




 outstanding needs (cash, kind, services) till December (= a y byc)  



 outstanding needs in cash  



 outstanding needs in kind  



 outstanding needs in service  



The initial integrated appeal has received a generous response, for which the ICRC and the International Federation are most grateful. The fact that most donors made nonyearymarked and regional contributions allowed for utmost flexibility in the Movement's response. The importance of maintaining such flexibility in order to better respond to the everychanging needs of the beneficiaries demands that donations remain regional and nonyearmarked.

Currently, the Red Cross/Red Crescent can still rely on large stocks of goods still available in the region. Consequently, it will allocate the bulk of its funds y with financial commitments peaking in September y to the purchase of items in the framework of the winterization programme.

 Ref. LG 1999-121-ENG