Gender affects and shapes individual experiences of armed conflict in complex ways. A gender perspective is a relevant tool for practitioners seeking to understand and reduce civilian harm in armed conflict. This landmark report focuses on gendered impacts of the conduct of hostilities and of situations of occupation and explores their implications for related IHL rules. It also tackles challenging questions regarding the role of IHL in addressing gendered harm in armed conflict, identifying opportunities and limitations. This report aims to contribute to the legal discourse on gender and IHL from an ICRC perspective, informed by an expert workshop.