Military operations have often resulted in the destruction of irreplaceable cultural property, a loss not only to the country of origin but also to the cultural heritage of all people. Recognizing the significance of this loss, the international community adopted the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (CCP). A Protocol dealing with cultural property during times of occupation (P1) was adopted at the same time as the 1954 Convention. Although the 1954 Convention strengthens protection for cultural property, its provisions have not always been adequately implemented. To address this problem, a second Protocol to the 1954 Convention (P2) was adopted on 26 March 1999. The two Protocols of 8 June 1977 additional to the Geneva Conventions also contain provisions protecting cultural property (Additional Protocol I, Arts 38, 53 and 85, and Additional Protocol II, Art. 16). Adherence to each of the foregoing instruments is essential to preserving objects precious to all humanity. Finally, it should be stressed that cultural property is also protected as a civilian object (Additional Protocol I, Art. 52(2)).