The Assembly is the supreme governing body of the ICRC. It oversees all the ICRC's activities. It formulates policy, defines general objectives and strategy, and approves the budget and accounts. It nominates the directors and the head of Internal Audit. Composed of between 17 and 25 co-opted members of Swiss nationality, the Assembly is collegial in character. Its President and Vice-President are the President and Vice-President of the ICRC.
Peter Maurer was born in Thun, Switzerland, in 1956. He studied history and international law in Bern, where he was awarded a doctorate. In 1987 he entered the Swiss diplomatic service, where he held various positions in Bern and Pretoria before being transferred to New York in 1996 as deputy permanent observer at the Swiss mission to the United Nations. In 2000 he was appointed ambassador and head of the human security division in the political directorate of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs in Bern.
Peter Maurer© ICRC
In 2004 Mr Maurer was appointed ambassador and permanent representative of Switzerland to the United Nations in New York. In this position, he worked to integrate Switzerland, which had only recently joined the United Nations, into multilateral networks. In June 2009, the UN General Assembly elected Mr Maurer chairman of the Fifth Committee, in charge of administrative and budgetary affairs. In addition, he was elected chairman of the Burundi configuration of the UN Peacebuilding Commission. In January 2010 Mr Maurer was appointed secretary of State for foreign affairs in Bern and took over the reins of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs, with its five directorates and some 150 Swiss diplomatic missions around the world. He succeeded Jakob Kellenberger as ICRC president on 1 July 2012.
Under his leadership, the ICRC carries out humanitarian work in over 80 countries. Mr Maurer's priorities for his presidency include strengthening humanitarian diplomacy, engaging States and other actors for the respect of international humanitarian law, and improving the humanitarian response through innovation and new partnerships.
Since taking over the presidency of the ICRC, Mr Maurer has led the organization through a historic budget increase, from 1.1bn CHF in 2011 to over 1.6bn CHF in 2015.
|Christine Beerli was born in 1953. A member of a law firm in Biel, Ms Beerli began her political career on that city's municipal council, where she served from 1980 to 1983. From 1986 to 1991 she was a member of the Legislative Assembly of the Canton of Bern. In 1991 she was elected to the Upper House of the Swiss Parliament, where she remained until 2003, chairing the Foreign Affairs Committee (1998-1999) and the Committee for Social Security and Health (2000-2001). Ms Beerli chaired the caucus of the Free Democratic Party in Switzerland's Federal Assembly from 1996 to 2003. She also served on committees dealing with security policy and economic and legal affairs. She retired from politics in 2003. Since 1st January 2006 she has headed Swissmedic, the Swiss supervisory authority for therapeutic products. She is former director of the School of Engineering and Information Technology at Bern University of Applied Sciences.|| |
Christine Beerli ©ICRC
In January 2008, Ms Beerli was appointed permanent Vice-President of the ICRC. As such she is a member of the ICRC Assembly – the institution's supreme governing body – as well as the Assembly Council and the Presidency, where she works closely with the President and deputises for him whenever necessary. This includes handling the ICRC's external relations, representing the ICRC on the international scene and, in close cooperation with the General Directorate, handling the ICRC's humanitarian diplomacy. Her particular areas of focus include helping to ensure the cohesion, smooth running and development of governance mechanisms and internal control, as well as strengthening and developing relationships within the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
Elected to the ICRC Assembly in 2017 and due to serve as the ICRC's vice-president from April 2018.
Gilles Carbonnier was born in 1965. He holds a doctorate in economics from the University of Neuchâtel and has worked in three main fields over the past 30 years: development economics, humanitarian action and international trade.
Since 2007, Gilles has been a professor of development economics at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, where he is also director of studies. In his research and teaching, he focuses on the economic dimensions of armed conflict and disaster, international cooperation, and issues surrounding natural resources in developing countries. His latest book, published in 2016 by Hurst and Oxford University Press, is entitled Humanitarian Economics: War, Disaster and the Global Aid Market.
Gilles Carbonnier ©CICR
Since 2012, he has been president of the Geneva Centre for Education and Research in Humanitarian Action, and vice-president of the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes. Gilles is also editor-in-chief of the e-journal International Development Policy, the latest issues of which considered political and economic developments in North Africa and the Middle East (2016), training and education in developing countries (2015), the nexus between religion and development (2013) and the role of emerging economies in international development cooperation (2012).
Previously, Gilles spent several years with the ICRC: he worked in the field from 1989 to 1991 as head of subdelegation in Ethiopia and Iraq and as a delegate in Sri Lanka and El Salvador, then at headquarters from 1999 to 2006 as an economic adviser. He was on the board of directors for Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Switzerland from 2007 to 2012.
From 1992 to 1999, he took part in the Uruguay Round of international trade negotiations within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) on behalf of the Swiss Government, then worked in the field of international development cooperation, including supporting the accession of Viet Nam to the WTO.
Elected to the ICRC Assembly in 2012. Member of the ICRC Audit Commission.
Mauro Arrigoni was born in 1952. He holds a PhD in mathematics from the University of Zurich. After graduating in 1980, he pursued an academic career in mathematics and physics in the Swiss canton of Ticino and in Mexico. He is the author of several scientific articles on mathematical models in biology and the founder of the scientific journal Il Volteriano. From 2007-2015 he was Dean of Mendrisio high school, Switzerland. Since 1997 Mauro Arrigoni has also been active in electoral observation missions in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Moldova, Kosovo, Serbia, Albania, Azerbaijan, Gaza, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Togo and Nicaragua.
Mauro Arrigoni© ICRC
Elected to the Assembly in 2012. Chairman of the Audit Commission.
Hugo Bänziger was born in 1956. He graduated from the University of Bern with a doctorate in banking history. He began his career in 1983 with the Swiss Federal Banking Commission in Bern, and then joined Credit Suisse Group in Zurich and London, where he held several positions in retail banking, corporate finance and risk management.
From 1996 to 2012, he worked at Deutsche Bank, where he was appointed to the Board in 2006 as Chief Risk Officer overseeing treasury, capital management, compliance, legal, regulatory policy, corporate security and business continuity.
Hugo Bänziger © ICRC
After 10 years on the Board of Eurex Group, Hugo Bänziger was appointed Chairman in August 2012. He also chaired the Advisory Panel to the Committee of European Banking Supervisors from 2007 to 2010, and co-chaired the Enhanced Disclosure Task Force of the Financial Stability Board and was a member of the EU's High-Level Expert Group on reforming the structure of the EU banking sector (Liikanen Group).
Hugo Bänziger's other interests include charity work as treasurer for the John D. V. Salvador Foundation for street children and teaching; he is visiting Professor at the London School of Economics and the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
In April 2014, he joined the Lombard Odier Group as a managing partner.
Edouard Bugnion was born in 1970 and raised in Neuchatel and Geneva. He studied at ETH Zurich and received his Ph.D. from Stanford University, both in computer science. He spent at total of 18 years in Silicon Valley where he co-founded two startups and served as their Chief Technology Officer: VMware and Nuova Systems (acquired by Cisco).
Edouard Bugnion returned to Switzerland and joined EPFL in 2012, where he is a Professor in the School of Computer and Communication Science. Since January 2017, he is also the Vice-President for Information Systems of EPFL.
Edouard Bugnion © ICRC
Professor Bugnion received numerous awards for his contributions as an academic and as an entrepreneur. He is a Fellow of the ACM and a Member of the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences (SATW).
Edouard Bugnion serves as an independent Board member of Logitech and of Innosuisse — the Swiss Innovation Agency.
Elected to the Assembly in 2012. Chairman of the Florence Nightingale Medal Commission. Chairman of the French Fund Maurice de Madre.
Jacques Chapuis was born in 1957 in Aubonne, Switzerland. After studying in Lausanne, he qualified as a psychiatric nurse in 1979, then as an anaesthesia and resuscitation specialist in 1984. From 1986 to 1987, he worked as a medical administrator for the ICRC in Pakistan (Peshawar and Quetta), overseeing war surgery in several hospitals and first-aid posts along the Afghan-Pakistan border.
Jacques Chapuis © ICRC
In 1988, he was appointed lead clinician and training manager for anaesthesia and resuscitation at the Le Samaritain Hospital in Vevey, Switzerland. He organized regular conferences about teaching life-saving skills, his particular area of interest, and sat on the board of a number of professional bodies, including the Swiss Nursing Association.
In 1991, he began teaching at the Bois-Cerf Nursing School in Lausanne, also lecturing on the history of international humanitarian law. In his own time, he completed a master's degree in education at the University of Geneva in 2000, and a diploma in management in Lausanne in 2005.
In 1998, he became head of the Bois-Cerf Nursing School and, in parallel, established the Bois-Cerf Paramedical College. In 2006, he became Director of the La Source Institute and Faculty of Applied Health Sciences. Established in 1859, the same year as the battle of Solferino, La Source was the first secular nursing school in the world and is now part of the HES-SO University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland network.
Jacques Chapuis is Vice-President of the International Secretariat of Nurses in the French-speaking world (SIDIIEF), based in Montreal. He is also a member of the Board of Fondation de Nant, which delivers psychiatric care in Vaud, Switzerland.
Melchior de Muralt
|Elected to the ICRC Assembly in 2012. Member of the ICRC Audit Commission. Chairman of the Joint Commission of the Empress Shôken Fund.|
Melchior de Muralt was born in 1960. He holds a PhD in political sciences from the University of Lausanne. In 1988 he joined the Lombard Odier private bank, where he promoted the work of the Ethos Foundation for Sustainable Development. In 2001, he became a partner in the asset management firm Pury Pictet Turrettini & Co Ltd. in Geneva. At the same time, he helped found Blue Orchard Finance, a company specializing in the management of investment funds dedicated to the micro-finance industry, where he is currently Vice-Chairman. He is also President of Cadmos Fund Management, pioneers in shareholder engagement funds based on the principles of the United Nations Global Compact for corporate sustainability.
Melchior de Muralt © ICRC
Elected to the ICRC Assembly in 2017.
Christoph Franz was born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, in 1960 and his place of origin is Zurich.
After graduating from Darmstadt Technical University and the Ecole Centrale de Lyon in Industrial Engineering, he earned his PhD in Political Science from Darmstadt Technical University and worked as a postdoc at the University of California, Berkeley.
Christoph Franz ©ICRC
He started his career at Lufthansa AG in 1990 and joined Deutsche Bahn AG in 1994, where he was appointed a Member of the Executive Board and CEO of the Passenger Transport Division. He was then appointed Chief Executive Officer of Swiss International Air Lines AG in 2004 and was later promoted to CEO of Lufthansa Airlines in 2009. From 2011 to 2014, Christoph Franz was the CEO of Deutsche Lufthansa AG. Christoph Franz serves as the Chairman of the Board of Directors of Roche Holding AG since March 2014.
Further mandates include the boards of Stadler Rail AG and Zurich Insurance Company Ltd. He is a Member of the Board of Trustees of Ernst Göhner Foundation and of the Advisory Board of University of St. Gallen (HSG). Moreover, Dr. Franz was appointed Honorary Professor for Business Administration at University of St. Gallen (HSG) in May 2017.
Elected to the ICRC Assembly in 2018.
Katja Gentinetta was born in 1968. Since 2011, she has been an independent political philosopher, lecturer at the Universities of St. Gallen, Lucerne and Zurich as well as board member in two companies and member of the board of trustees of the Gebert Rüf Foundation. As managing partner of GENTINETTA*SCHOLTEN Ltd. she advises companies, public institutions and private persons in social and political issues. Together with Eric Gujer, Editor-in-Chief, she hosts the „NZZ Standpunkte“ at Swiss Television.
Katja Gentinetta studied German literature, history and philosophy and holds a Ph.D. in political philosophy from the University of Zurich for her thesis on tolerance and its limits in multicultural societies. She completed her studies at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris, the International Centre for Culture and Management in Salzburg and the Harvard Kennedy School.
Before starting her own business, she was Deputy Director of the leading think tank Avenir Suisse. She also hosted the “Sternstunde Philosophie” at Swiss Public Television. For several years, she worked for the Canton of Aargau as Head for strategy and external affairs as well as project manager for the national exhibition Expo.02. She started her career as director of the cultural institution “Forum Schlossplatz” in Aarau.
Katja Gentinetta ©B. Hofer
Katja Gentinetta wrote several books on social and political issues, among the latest "Do businesses have a home" (NZZ libro 2016). She is a well-known key note speaker in Switzerland and abroad and a regular contributor and op-ed columnist to the Swiss media.
Maya Hertig Randall
|Member of the Data Protection Independent Control Commission. President of the Recruitment and Remuneration Commission.|
Maya Hertig Randall was born in 1973. Since 2007, she has been Professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Geneva and co-Director of the Certificate of Advanced Studies in Human Rights. She took a first law degree at the University of Neuchâtel, followed by a doctorate from the University of Fribourg and a Master of Law (LLM) from Cambridge. Before joining the University of Geneva, she was Assistant Professor of European and International Economic Law at the University of Bern, as well as a visiting scholar at the Central European University in Budapest and the University of Michigan.
Maya Hertig Randall © CICR
Maya Hertig Randall has widely published in French, German and English on human rights, comparative and international constitutionalism, federalism and the accommodation of diversity.
Since 2012, she has been a member of the Swiss Federal Commission against Racism.
|Member of the Data Protection Independent Control Commission, of the Recruitment and Remuneration Commission and of the ICRC Audit Commission.|
Alexis Keller was born in 1962. He studied at the Universities of Geneva and Cambridge and is a former fellow of the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. He is currently a Professor of legal history and legal theory at the University of Geneva and visiting Professor at SciencesPo (Paris).
From 2002 to 2004, Alexis Keller took an active part in the negotiations between Israelis and Palestinians that led to the Geneva Initiative. In April 2003, the Swiss Foreign Minister appointed him as Special Representative for the Middle East peace process, a position he held until January 2004.
Alexis Keller © ICRC
Alexis Keller has written books and numerous articles on legal history, legal theory and European intellectual history. He is the recipient of an honorary doctorate from the University of Paris (2005). In 2002, he was awarded the Latsis Prize. In 2004, he was awarded the Condorcet-Raymond Aron Prize and the Sean MacBride Peace Prize for his efforts to promote peace in the Middle East.
Alexis Keller is a member of several academic societies and research institutes, both in Europe and the United States. He is the President of the Theology Faculty Board at the University of Geneva, a board member of the ProVictimis foundation, and a member of the Advisory Board of the International Center for Transitional Justice.
Elected to the ICRC Assembly in 2010. Chairman of the Board of the ICRC Special Fund for the Disabled. Member of the Recruitment and Remuneration Commission. Member of the Florence Nightingale Medal Commission.
Jürg Kesselring was born in 1951. He is head of the Department of Neurology and Neurorehabilitation at Valens Rehabilitation Centre in Switzerland, as well as Professor of Clinical Neurology and Neurorehabilitation at Bern University Hospital, lecturer in the Department of Health Sciences and Technology at ETH Zürich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology). Jürg Kesselring is former Chairman of the International Medical and Scientific Board of the Multiple Sclerosis International Federation (MSIF); First Honorary President of the Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Society and former Chairman of the World Health Organization Working Group on Multiple Sclerosis.
Hi is a former ICRC medical delegate to Lebanon, Pakistan and Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo).
Jürg Kesselring © ICRC
|Elected to the Assembly in 2012.|
Thierry Lombard holds a degree in economics from the University of Geneva. He joined the Lombard Odier private bank in 1972 as a sixth generation family member and had a career there spanning 42 years.
He became a managing partner in 1982 and then senior partner from 1995 to 2008.
Thierry Lombard © ICRC
During his career Thierry Lombard has been involved in private and institutional management, human resources and pension funds. He is particularly interested in investment strategy and has been the instigator and co-author of several books on inheritance, wealth, philanthropy and investment. He has also been very involved in entrepreneurship and innovation, particularly as part of a long-term relationship with EPFL, the Lausanne École Polytechnique Fédérale.
He is the instigator and co-author of several books on inheritance, wealth, philanthropy and investment and has also been very involved in entrepreneurship and innovation, particularly through his work with the Federal Institutes of Technology (ETH) board and as part of a long-term relationship with EPFL, the Lausanne École Polytechnique Fédérale.
Thierry Lombard is a former Chairman of the Board of the Family Business Network (FBN) International, a non-profit association of more than 9,000 family businesses worldwide, which includes 4,000 representatives of the next generation.
He is a member of the Assembly of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and also active in several medical and humanitarian foundations. He established and chaired until December 2015, the Fondation Lombard Odier and the Fondation Philanthropia (an umbrella foundation for the bank's clients).
|Member of the ICRC Audit Commission.|
Laura Sadis was born in 1961 and holds a degree in economics from the University of Zurich. She also holds a federal diploma in tax accounting and worked for a number of years in the financial planning sector. In 1995 she was elected to the Legislative Council of the canton of Ticino, where she served until 2003. From 2003 to 2007 she was a member of the National Council, the lower house of the Swiss parliament, before being elected to the State Council of the canton of Ticino. In this post, she headed the Department of Finance and Economics until 2015. Between 2007 and 2015 she was also a member of the Bank Council, which oversees the conduct of business of the Swiss National Bank. Since 2015 Laura Sadis has sat on the board of AlpTransit Gotthard and the International Balzan Prize Foundation "Fund".
Laura Sadis © ICRC
|Elected to the Assembly in 2012.|
Doris Schopper was born in 1954. After undergraduate studies in medicine at the University of Geneva (1978), she specialized in internal medicine (1986) and completed a doctorate in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health (1992). Between 1982 and 1990 she spent several years in the field with Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). She was President of the Swiss branch of MSF from 1991 to 1998. During this period, she served two terms as President of MSF's International Council and in 2001 was asked to set up an independent ethics review board for MSF International. She has been the Chair of the Board since then, providing advice and overseeing ethical reviews of MSF research proposals.
Doris Schopper © ICRC
Doris Schopper worked as Health Policy Adviser to the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on AIDS at its headquarters in Geneva from 1992 to 1995. She was also Senior Health Policy Adviser at the Swiss Tropical Institute for two years, and has developed several policies and strategies for WHO. She has also been responsible for the development of national and regional public health policies and strategies in Switzerland.
Doris Schopper has been a Professor in the Faculty of Medicine and Director of the Center for Education and Research in Humanitarian Action at the University of Geneva since July 2011.
|Elected to the Assembly in 2015 and to the Assembly Council in 2017. Member of the Recruitment and Remuneration Commission.|
Béatrice Speiser was born in Zurich in 1963 and grew up in Brussels, Belgium. She studied law at the University of St. Gallen, graduating with a doctorate, and later attended the Advanced Management Program at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and the European Institute of Business Administration (INSEAD) in France.
In 2004, she founded Crescenda, the first Swiss start-up centre for migrant women, of which she is President and Executive Director. Based in Basel, Crescenda trains and supervises migrant women wishing to start their own business, and facilitates their social and economic integration into Switzerland. Among other distinctions, Crescenda has received the Swiss Integration Prize.
Béatrice Speiser © ICRC
Béatrice Speiser lives in Basel and is an independent lawyer and a substitute judge at the Basel Civil Court. She is an entrepreneur and sits on the board of several firms and non-profit organizations. She co-edited Das Crescenda Modell: Migrantinnen als Unternehmerinnen (The Crescenda Model: Migrant Women as Entrepreneurs), published by rüffer & rub Sachbuchverlag in 2014.
Elected to the Assembly in 2010 and to the Assembly Council in 2011.
Bruno Staffelbach was born in 1957. He holds a master's degree in economics, a doctorate in business administration, and a postdoctoral qualification in management and ethics from the University of Zurich. From 1992 to 2016, he was the Chaired Professor in Business Administration and Human Resource Management at the University of Zurich, where he also directed the university's executive education programme and headed the Institute for Strategy and Business Economics. He also taught at the University of Fribourg. Since August 2016 he has been the Rector of the University of Lucerne.
Bruno Staffelbach © ICRC
Alongside his academic career, Bruno Staffelbach served as Commander and General Staff Officer in the Swiss Armed Forces. He held the rank of Brigadier-General and commanded an infantry brigade from 2004 to 2008.
Bruno Staffelbach also sits on the boards of a number of academic organizations and is the current President of the Executive MBA Programme at the University of Zurich.
Elected to the Assembly in 2012 and Member of the Assembly Council from 2014 to 2017. Member of the Recruitment and Remuneration Commission. Granted temporary leave from the ICRC from June 2014 to July 2015 – see below.
Heidi Tagliavini was born in 1950 in Basel, Switzerland. She studied philology in Geneva and Moscow and holds two honorary doctorates from the Universities of Basel and Bern.
A Swiss career diplomat for over 30 years, Heidi Tagliavini joined the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs in 1982. After several assignments in bilateral diplomacy (in Bern, Lima, Moscow and The Hague), she worked mainly in conflict settlement and peacekeeping, and in promoting democratic institutions and human rights in regional and international organizations. These include the United Nations (UN), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and the European Union (EU).
Heidi Tagliavini © ICRC
In 1995, Heidi Tagliavini was deployed with the first OSCE Assistance Group to Chechnya, during the war there. In 1998 she was appointed Ambassador to serve as Deputy to the Special Representative of the UN Secretary General in Georgia, with a focus on the conflict in Abkhazia. In 2000, the Austrian OSCE Chairperson-in-Office appointed Heidi Tagliavini as her Personal Representative for the Caucasus.
Heidi Tagliavini served as Swiss Ambassador to Bosnia-Herzegovina from 2001 to 2002. In 2002, UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, appointed her as Special Representative and Head of the United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia for a four-year term. She returned to the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs in 2006 as Deputy Political Director and Deputy Secretary of State.
The EU Council of Ministers appointed Ambassador Tagliavini in December 2008 as Head of the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on the Conflict in Georgia, which released its EU-commissioned report in September 2009.
Between 2009 and 2013 Heidi Tagliavini was deployed by the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights to head its election observation missions in several presidential and parliamentary elections in Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Armenia.
From June 2014 to July 2015, Heidi Tagliavini served as OSCE Special Representative for the peace negotiations between Ukraine and the Russian Federation. During this period, she was granted temporary leave from the ICRC by the Assembly, as the two functions were incompatible.
Elected to the ICRC Assembly and to the Assembly Council in 2017.
Barbara Wildhaber was born in Aargau, Switzerland, in 1969. She graduated from the University of Zurich with a federal diploma in medicine in 1994 and with a doctorate in 1995. She began specializing in paediatric surgery, working in Switzerland (Zug, Lucerne and Zurich) and abroad (South Africa and the United States). She completed her training at Geneva University Hospitals (HUG), becoming a specialist paediatric surgeon in 2005. She then further specialized in paediatric hepatobiliary surgery in Paris from 2006 to 2007. In 2010, she was appointed professor within the faculty of medicine at the University of Geneva and head of paediatric surgery at HUG.
Barbara Wildhaber ©CICR
Since 2014, Barbara has been the director of the Centre Universitaire Romand de Chirurgie Pédiatrique, which pools expertise in paediatric surgery from the university hospitals of Geneva and Vaud. In the same year, she was appointed professor within the faculty of biology and medicine at the University of Lausanne.
As her clinical work mainly encompassed liver transplants and paediatric hepatobiliary surgery, she became the surgical expert at the Swiss referral centre for paediatric liver disease at HUG. In her capacity as a paediatric surgeon, she has carried out several assignments in Ukraine, the Dominican Republic and South Africa and is highly involved in the Global Children's Surgery project.
Within academia, Barbara has led research projects in her areas of expertise, earning several scientific awards, and written many papers for leading scientific journals. She is also actively involved in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate medical students at the universities of Geneva and Lausanne. She sits on the executive boards of various scientific journals, foundations and scholarly associations, including Académie Suisse des Sciences Médicales.