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Model law: the Biological and Toxin Weapons Crimes Act.

30-09-2005 Article, International Review of the Red Cross, No. 859, by Christopher B. Harland, Angela Woodward

An Act to implement obligations under the 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and the 1925 Geneva Protocol


Christopher B. Harland and Angela Woodward
Christopher B. Harland is Legal Adviser in the ICRC Advisory Service on international humanitarian law and Angela Woodward is Deputy Director of the Verifi cation Research, Training and Information Centre (VERTIC). 

This year marks the 80th anniversary of the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the 30th anniversary of the entry into force in 1975 of the 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. These instruments are relatively widely accepted: 133 States are party to the Protocol and 155 to the Convention. It was thus felt opportune to draft the following model legislation, not only in light of the anniversaries but also in view of the fact that domestic implementation of the Convention has been relatively weak, and in response to a growing number of requests to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) by States Parties for assistance in fulfilling their obligations. Convention.  

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