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International Review of the Red Cross, 2012 - No 885 – Occupation

The International Review of the Red Cross is a quarterly published by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and Cambridge University Press.


Texts published by the Review reflect the views of the author alone and not necessarily those of the ICRC or of the Review. Only texts bearing an ICRC signature may be ascribed to the institution.

Issue No. 885 – 2012

Theme - Occupation

Download pdfPDF 9 MB The Review has decided to contribute to the discussion on whether the rules of occupation should be strengthened, clarified, or developed, by devoting the present edition to the subject of the grey areas and contentious issues arising from occupation law. The Review asked experts on matters related to occupation to offer their perspective, whether historical, military, or legal, in order to explore six key questions. How and along what lines has occupation law developed? When does the invasion phase end and the duties of occupiers and the rights of people living under occupation begin? Is the law always suited to prolonged occupation? Is there any justification for changing the institutions and/or the laws of an occupied territory? What is the role of the military in the occupation of a territory? What is the role of human rights?
By article: Occupation - issue No. 885

Table of contents



  • Is the law of occupation applicable to the invasion phase?
    Marten Zwanenburg, Michael Bothe and Marco Sassòli
    Three experts in the field of occupation law – Marten Zwanenburg, Michael Bothe, and Marco Sassòli – have agreed to participate in a debate on whether or not the law of occupation could already be applied during the invasion phase, and to defend three approaches.


Comments and opinions

  • The occupation of Iraq: a military perspective on lessons learned
    Matthew R. Hover
    This opinion note briefly describes the US military perspective preceding the Iraqi occupation and highlights some of the primary lessons learned from it. Those lessons fall into three main categories: planning, training, and inter-agency execution.

Reports and documents

Books and articles